Terms and Notes
The Graduated Path to Liberation
by Geshe Rabten Rinpoche

The terms are given first in English, followed by the Sanskrit and Tibetan equivalents. The syllables in brackets provide a phonetic Tibetan pronunciation. Diacritical marks have not been used on Sanskrit letters. The explanations are intended only to expand briefly on the use of the term in this text. For exact transliteration and for more general definitions and a wider range of applications, the reader is referred to the glossaries of other publications concerning the sutra path in Buddhism, as well as to such dictionaries as Monier-Williams' A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, and Chandra Das' Tibetan-English Dictionary.
  1. The four noble truths; caturaryasatya; bden.pa bzhi (den.pa zhi).

  2. Suffering due to suffering; suffering of misery; duhkha duhkhata; sdug.bsngalgy sdug.bsngal (dug.ngal gyi dug.ngal).

  3. Suffering due to change; viparinama duhkhata; ’gyur.bai sdug.bsngal (gyur.wei dug.ngal).

  4. All embracing suffering due to mental formations; suffering of being conditioned; samskara duhkhata; khyab.pai 'dus.byed gyi sdug.bsngal (khyab.pai du.je gyi dug.ngal).

  5. Volitional action of body, speech and mind; karma; las (ley). The Sanskrit term karma is generally used. Karma is of three types: skillful, unskillful, and neutral.

  6. Mental defilement; klesha; nyon.mongs (nyon.mong). There are two forms of mental defilements: harmful inclinations, and the mistaking of the way things appear to exist for the way they actually do.

  7. (Literally) circle or sphere; mandala; dkyil.'khor (kyil.kor). The Sanskrit term mandala is used most often. A mandala can be the physical circular object used for making offerings, the symbolic universe that is being offered, or the special abode or environment of the one who is receiving the offering.

  8. The intermediate state between one's death and one's next rebirth; antarabhava; bar.do (bardo).

  9. Desire; attachment; rag; 'dod.chags (dod.chag);
    Aversion; anger; hatred; dosha; zhe-sdang (zhe.dang);
    Ignorance; mental darkness; moha; gti.mug (ti.mug). These three comprise the three poisons.

  10. Ignorance regarding the self of persons; pudgalatmadrishti; gang.zag gi dag.dzin gyi ma.rig.pa (gang.zag gi dag.dzin gyi ma.rig.pa);
    Ignorance regarding the self of phenomena; dharmatmadrishti; cho.kyi dag.dzin gyi ma.rig.pa).

  11. Carrying; vehicle; yana; theg.pa (teg.pa).

  12. The mind motivated or dedicated to achieve enlightenment for the sake of all living beings; the altruistic intention; the awakening mind; bodhicitta; byang.chub kyi sems (jang.chub kyi sem).

  13. Wisdom; prajna; shes.rab (she.rab). Method; means; upaya; thabs (tab).

  14. Buddha field; buddha kshetra; sangs.rgyas kyi zhing (sang.gye kye zhing).

  15. Ten levels or grounds; dashabhumi; sa.bcu (sa.chu).

  16. "The Oceans of Clouds of Praises"; stod.sprin rgya.mtsho (do.trin gya.tso). This is a prayer in praise of the bodhisattva Manjushri, which contains a description of a buddha's qualities of body, speech and mind.

  17. Perfection; paramita; pha.rol tu phyin.pa (pa.rol tu chin.pa).

  18. Lha Lama Yeshe Ö; (Devaguru Jnanaprabha). This king was a descendant of King Langdarma (gLan-dar-ma), who was responsible for eradicating the first spreading of Buddhism in Tibet.

  19. Verses 19 and 20 of Je Tsong Khapa's prayer The Beginning and the End (thog.mtha.ma (tog.ta ma)).

  20. Calm abiding; samatha; zhi-gnas (zhi.nay). Calm abiding is the perfection of mental concentration.

  21. Analytical, or investigative, meditation; vicharabhavana; dpyad.sgom (je.gom). Discursive analysis of the true nature of the meditation object.

  22. Concentration meditation; sthapyabhavana; 'jog.sgom (jo.gom). Following discriminating or analytic meditation, one then single-pointedly places the mind on the meditation object. This practice is an aspect of calm abiding.

  23. Diamond posture; vajrasana; rdo.rje.gdan (dor.je den). This asana is called the diamond posture or pose because in this position, one can sit firmly, "indestructibly," unmovingly, for a long period of time.

  24. Scattered attention; agitation; mental excitement; auddhyata; rgod.pa (go.pu).

  25. Torpor; sinking; lethargy; nirmagnata; bying.ba (jing.wa).

  26. Mindfulness; remembrance; recollection; smrti; dran.pa (den.pa).

  27. Clear comprehension; awareness; mental spy; samprajdnya; shes.bzhin (she.zlzin).

  28. Subtle torpor; sukshmanirmagnata; byin.ba phra.mo (jing.wa tra.mo).

  29. Insight meditation; heightened insight; vipashyana; Ihag.mthon (Ihag.thong).

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