"There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dharma.
There will be those who will understand the Dharma." SN6.1

-- Analysis by themes of --
The Middle Way

in the Sutta Pitaka

showing that those sutras are all about
The Middle Way
between existence & non-existence;
the non-affirming Tetralemma;
the union of dependent co-origination &
emptiness of inherent existence;
the inseparability of world & mind;
their non-duality: not two, not one, or
not different/separate but still not the same;
the need for accumulating both merit & wisdom.

"Open are the doors to the Deathless to those with ears." SN6.1

 "I will speak step-by-step.
I will speak explaining the sequence [of cause & effect].
I will speak
out of compassion.
I will speak not for the purpose of material reward.
I will speak without disparaging myself or others." AN5.159

"In the same way, in the course of the future there will [ still  be few people who  will ] listen when discourses that are words of the Tathagata
-- deep, deep in their meaning, transcendent,
connected with emptiness --
are being recited." -- Inspired from SN20.7

"Both formerly & now, it is only
[the dependent origination of] stress [the five aggregates]
and the [necessary] cessation of stress, that I describe."
-- Inspired from SN22.86 - To Anuradha

* * *

Original sutras taken from
The Sutra Pitaka
as found at Access to Insight
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/

[Note this study is not finished, and will probably be continued next summer.]

Detailed Table of Contents

Detailed Table of Contents. 2

Rsum. 6

Study of the nature of reality. 9

Four Noble Truths. 9

Draft Rsum. 9

The necessity to realize the Four Noble Truths. 13

The cause/origin of stress/suffering is craving ... 14

The root cause of craving is ignorance; that is what has to be removed. 22

The solution is to remove this ignorance of the arising & cessation of the five aggregates, of the 12 links, of the inseparability of world and mind... 26

Impermanence. 32

The three universal characteristics of phenomena: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and no-self 32

The need for conceptual understanding first, and then personal direct knowledge of this. 33

The four perversions. 33

The two aspects of impermanence: gross, subtle. 34

The three stages of development: arising, transformation/change, cessation. 35

The whole world, everything, is impermanent ... 36

Impermanence of the world. 36

Impermanence of all sort of things. 37

Impermanence of the five aggregates. 38

Impermanence of feelings. 39

Impermanence of the six sense media. 39

Impermanence of concentration states. 40

Impermanence of views. 41

Impermanence of the 12 links of dependent origination. 42

In short, everything is impermanence because dependently co-arisen. 43

Ignorance of the impermanence of all dependently arisen things is a cause for suffering removing this ignorance of arising & falling away is liberation. 43

How to deal with resistance to change. 44

The Middle Way about impermanence. 46

Karma. 47

Beings are what they are because of their accumulated karma. 47

Karma should be known: a conditioning cycle. 49

Skillful (merit) and unskillful actions of body, speech and mind. 51

Obstructions of already accumulated conditioning to be abandoned gross mistakes, too far from the reality of arising & falling away. 56

The need to abandon the fetters. 59

The need to abandon the five hindrances, and develop concentration, before being able to have insights into reality. 62

The need to abandon desire. 66

The need to gradually purify our body, speech and mind before we can develop insights into reality. 68

The need to abandon the three poisons desire, hate, delusion. 69

The need to abandon belief in absolute views and methods. 73

The need to abandon the illusion of the self 76

The need to abandon all the fermentations / cankers / effluents / taints. 77

The need to abandon ignorance, the root cause. 81

The need to abandon the interdependent or inseparable taints/fermentations/effluents/cankers and ignorance together otherwise it is not complete. 82

Abandoning unwholesomeness, the three poisons, the cankers, is done through using virtuous methods and understanding + directly knowing the arising & falling away of all dharma. 84

Meanwhile, the need to use antidotes and develop what is skillful 92

The relativity of what is skillful or unskillful 94

Relativity of karma. 95

The Middle Way about karma: not absolute, not non-existent 97

Rebirth should not be taken literally. 99

Dependent co-origination of the world and mind.. 100

It is all about realizing the origination and falling away of all dharma of the world & self 100

The dependent co-origination of all dharma. 102

Dependent origination of the world. 102

Dependent origination of the five aggregates. 104

Dependent origination of the 12 links; interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form.. 106

Dependent origination of the self, and of the illusion of the self 111

Dependent origination of extreme views about production. 113

Dependent origination of complications, views, obsessions, dispute. 115

Directly realizing dependent origination & necessary falling away, one becomes free. 117

Dependent origination after 'Release' 120

No-self (dependent origination and emptiness of the self) 121

Seeking for the self -- all dependently arisen phenomena are not-self 121

The problem is thinking that the self and [some or all of] the five aggregates are the same, or different 123

Dependent origination of the self, and of the illusion of the self 124

Proving that the self and the five aggregates [the world] are not the same, not separate/different because the rise and falling away are discerned. 125

But this doesnt mean that there is no self at all 130

The Middle Way about the self (mind) and the world. 131

Emptiness (emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma) 135

The whole world is empty. 135

Training to see the world as empty. 137

Directly realizing this emptiness. 140

Everything is empty because dependently co-arisen with the mind. 141

Realizing emptiness is freedom.. 142

Realizing the emptiness of the self is not enough; we need to realize the emptiness of all dharma the world and mind are inseparable. 143

The need to combine dependent origination & emptiness the Middle Way. 145

The Middle Way between two extremes, realizing their non-duality. 145

Liberation is reached by acting in accord with this reality the Middle Way. 146

The Middle Way between sensual pleasure and self-affliction. 146

The Middle Way between accepting and rejecting. 147

The Middle Way in meditation not about shutting down the mind, not by rejecting thoughts. 151

The Middle Way in meditation the union of samatha and vipassana. 152

The Middle Way after Liberation still in accord with reality. 155

The Tetralemma staying away from all extremes a non-affirmative negation.. 158

Away from the four extremes. 158

It applies even to the Tathagata or Nirvana. 159

It is not an absolute position, an extreme view, or a dogma. 160

Non-duality: not the same, not different/separate; not two, not one. 163

The nature of change: no continuity, no discontinuity [not the same, not different] 163

Inseparability of the self and the five aggregates [not the same, not different] 163

Inseparability of consciousness (self/mind) and name-&-form (world) [not the same, not different] 165

Non-duality of male & female [not the same, not different] 165

Inseparability of the goal and the path of method and wisdom.. 166

Transcending all dualities. 166

Beyond all description, beyond all conceptualization.. 170

Difficult to understand, to realize, difficult to teach. 170

For those who can understand (with little dust in their eyes) 171

Many will not realize it 171

Beyond the scope of conjecture. 171

Beyond all conceptualization. 171

Leading to Unbinding, not to a view ... 172

Removing ignorance with personal direct knowledge / awareness. 173

The 21 states of union. 178

Rsum

.

What has to be directly realized (using the Middle Way, using the union of methods and wisdom, using the union of samatha and vipassana) :

v    'This is the nature and the diversity of stress, karma, of craving, of the five aggregates, of the six sense-media, of the four great elements, of the 12 links of dependent origination, of nutriments, of all actions, of views / concepts, of all discrimination / dualities, of all perceptions, of all dharma, of samsara and Nirvana, of the world & mind (self) ' (i.e. these are all synonyms or examples of 'stress / suffering')

v    'This is the dependent origination of stress, karma, habits, self-conditioning, (see list) the dependent co-origination of the world & mind,'

    [all ultimately based on insatiable craving for things and beings that we think are real (inherently existing) and with real characteristics,

    all ultimately based on ignorance the real nature of everything; from this come all unwholesomeness, all mistakes, all wrong investments in the five aggregates, and all necessary consequences of those mistakes / bad karma: more deception and suffering;

    all ultimately based on not knowing the these Four Noble Truths:

     not knowing the nature/diversity of stress (see list),

     not knowing the origination,

     not knowing the cessation,

     not knowing the path leading to the cessation (see list) of the world and mind (self).]

v    'This is the cessation of stress, karma, deconditioning, transcending, (see list) seeing through the real nature of the world & mind,'

    [all ultimately based on wisdom / clear knowing, on a personal direct knowledge of the real nature of everything:

     knowing the nature/diversity of (see list),

     knowing the origination of,

     knowing the cessation of,

     knowing the path leading to the cessation of(see list) to the transcending of the world and mind (self);

    Knowing that everything is dependently arisen (dependent on causes and conditions, and interdependent with the mind labeling them)

    knowing that everything that is dependently arisen is necessarily subject to falling away; impermanent, stressful, not-self, an emptiness, ;

    knowing that everything is dependent on everything else;

    knowing that nothing stays the same even for an infinitesimal moment; so nothing really exist;

    knowing that the whole world, the five aggregates, the six sense-media, the four great elements, (see list) are all not the same as the self (not-self) and not separate/different than the self either; one cannot exist without the other;

    knowing that the world (name-&-form) and mind (consciousness) are dependent on each other, and go not further;

    knowing that they are interdependent, inseparable (not the same, not different), non-dual (not two, not one);

    knowing that nothing is independent of everything else, nothing is inherently existing; everything is empty of inherent existence because everything is dependently arisen, and interdependent with the mind.]

v    'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress, karma, the gradual-deconditioning, (see list) of the world & mind,'

    [all ultimately based on acting more and more in accord with reality (not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither // interdependence of the world and mind); staying away from all extremes like realism, idealism or nihilism, dualism or manyness, monism or oneness;

    acting in accord with the Middle Way (not accepting anything as absolute or inherently existing, not rejecting everything as if completely useless, or not dependently arisen, or completely non-existent; not dropping all);

    using virtuous adapted skillful means that are more and more subtle (starting with morality, renunciation, specific temporary antidotes, not taking side in dispute, calming the body & mind, developing concentration ) while gradually developing the necessary conditions for insights to occur and gradually understanding and directly realizing the real nature of everything, of the three: subject, object, action, and their inseparability;

    using virtuous methods and views while not getting attached to any of them;

    abandoning bad habits and developing virtuous habits that will ultimately permit to be able to see through and transcend all habits, all karma formation and accumulated conditioning;

    meanwhile, accumulating both merit and wisdom;

    using the three trainings: morality, concentration, wisdom, leading to the union of samatha and vipassana;

    A gradual process of purification of our body speech and mind by realizing their real nature, the real nature of the three realms (interdependent co-origination, emptiness, inseparability of these two aspects) and the inseparability of the three realms.]

v    It all comes down to the understanding and directly realizing

      the union/inseparability of dependent origination (arising)
& emptiness (cessation) of all dharma, and mostly of

      of the inseparable world (name-&-form, five aggregates)
& mind (consciousness, self). Or

      directly realizing the non-duality of everything, the perfect union.

v    Everything, the world and mind, is dependently arisen, thus necessary subject to passing away, thus not existing independently on its own, thus empty of inherent existence. And vice versa.

v    Everything, the world and mind, is not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both, not neither. Everything is empty of inherent existence but still dependently arisen and functional.

v    Nothing stays the same even for an infinitesimal moment. From one moment to the next one, any-thing, or any-being, is not the same, not different: no continuity, no discontinuity. Everything is like an illusion.

v    The world (name-&-form) and mind (consciousness, self) are interdependent, One cannot exist without the other. One implies the other. They are inseparable (not the separate/different, not the same), non-dual (not two, not one).

v    All pairs / dualities are not the same, not different. They are conceptually interdependent. One side cannot exist without the other. One side implies the other. They are interdependent, inseparable, non-dual: not two, not one. Everything is like that.

v    The path consists of gradually conceptually understanding and then directly realizing the dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence of more and more subtle dharma.

v    The Buddha has no absolute position, no final view, no dogma. The real nature of everything is beyond all description, all conceptualization, all methods. It can be know only by directly realizing the real nature of our own mind in action in the present. And since the world and mind are inseparable, we thus directly realize the real nature of the whole world.

v    The Middle Way is between existence and non-existence; between accepting and rejecting. And this is a non-affirmative negation. It is not a position, not an absolute view, not an absolute truth, not a dogma. It is just another adapted skillful means, just pointing at the moon. It is efficient because it is in accord with reality.

v    Everything is not existing, not non-existing, not both, not neither. This Tetralemma is a non-affirmative negation. It is not a position, not an absolute view, not an absolute truth, not a dogma. It is just another adapted skillful means, just pointing at the moon.

v    Dependent origination and emptiness are interdependent, inseparable. One cannot exist without the other. They are not different, not the same. They are inseparable, non-dual: not two, not one. And this is a non-affirmative negation. It is not a position, not an absolute view, not an absolute truth, not a dogma. It is just another adapted skillful means, just pointing at the moon.

v    On the path, because everything is not existent but still not-non-existent, to be in accord with reality, we need both virtuous methods based on dependent origination and the wisdom gradually realizing the emptiness of all dharma.  We need to accumulate both merit and wisdom. We need to use adapted skillful means while knowing that they are never absolute, that all of their elements (subjects, objects, actions) are all dependently arisen and thus empty of inherent existence.

v    The Middle Way in meditation consists of not letting the mind go wild chasing after illusions, not trying to control it or to stop all mentation either. It is the union of both samatha (concentration) and vipassana (insight). It is efficient because it is in accord with reality.

v    The goal of the path is to remove all suffering. This is done by the abandonment of the cause of all suffering, the abandonment of the three poisons desire, hate, delusion. And this is done only by realizing the real nature of their objects. It cannot be done artificially by trying to drop them without realizing their real nature.

v    All classifications, comparisons, characteristics, judgments, perceptions, views, are relative, dependently arisen, dependent on contact, dependent on accumulated karma, dependent on our actual body speech and mind. There is no absolute in any of them. This doesnt mean we should drop them. It means we should know their real nature while using them.

v    The only real valid meaning of live is to live, to use all nutriments, having the goal to create the proper conditions so that everybody could ultimately realize the real nature of everything and be free from all suffering.

v    Because the self, and everything else, is not existent but still not non-existent, there is no real continuity between the cause (the one creating karma) and the effect (the one suffering); but there is no discontinuity either. The one before and after, or the cause and the effect, are not different, not the same. That is the meaning of being empty of inherent existence (not existent), but still being dependently arisen and functional (not non-existent).

v    There are many adapted skillful means helping to create the proper conditions for us to be able ultimately to understand and realize the real nature of our own mind, and thus of everything. They are called virtuous methods or accumulating merit. They mostly consists of guidelines to create more peace and calm around us, less preoccupations in our own mind, and more concentration capacity in order to be able to watch our own mind in action in the present and to see through its functioning, how it creates all of those illusions in dependence. There is no way we can reach this stage without renunciation (some), morality, patience, love, compassion, equanimity, concentration. And there is almost no way to realize the real nature of everything without first having a proper conceptual understanding of it. We need to know how to stay on the right tract and not fall into all of those traps along the path.

v    Realizing the real nature of all fabrications in terms of origination and cessation means that we realize that they are all dependently arisen (not non-existent), and that they are all going to cease when the requirements are no longer there (they are all empty of inherent existence, not existing on their own, independently). So it has the same meaning as the Middle Way between existence and non-existence, and as the union of dependent origination and emptiness.

v    etc

Study of the nature of reality

Four Noble Truths

Draft Rsum

v    This is what has to be understood, to be discern as it actually is present, to be seen with right discernment, to be directly realized; that's the secure refuge, that, the supreme refuge, that is the refuge, having gone to which, you gain release from all suffering & stress.

      'This is stress/sufferings/dukkha' to be comprehended ... (i.e. nature, diversity )

    Realizing the nature and diversity of suffering

    First, the three types of suffering:

     physical - suffering of suffering : birth, aging, death;

     mental - suffering of change : due to change, grief, lamentation, bodily pain, mental pain and despair, not getting what one desires; the discrepancy between our illusions and reality, the disappointments of life, the impossibility to satisfy our desires;

     cosmic - all-pervasive sufferings - the essential form of suffering : In brief the five aggregates subject to grasping are suffering.

    Second, it is in the nature of all fabrication, everything dependently arisen, to be impermanent, unsatisfying, no-self, empty of inherent existence. Grasping at any permanence or absolute there is suffering.

    Third, nothing is really suffering or not, really good or bad; it is not knowing and being aware of the real nature of everything that is the problem.

    Fourth, suffering itself is just another illusion; it is also empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen.

      'This is the origination of stress' to be abandoned ... (i.e. dependent origination)

    Realizing the cause, the origin, the dependent origination of suffering, and of its causes.; the cause of samsara: ignorance & craving.

    First, the origin of suffering is craving;

     The three types of craving which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that:

     craving for sense pleasures:

     craving for existence / being / becoming:

     craving for non-existence / non-being / non-becoming:

     The six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odors, craving for flavors, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects (ideas).

     The 108 types of craving-verbalizations:

     The four perversions; the four are ignoble searches

     Craving for what; craving dependent on what ?:

     for the four types of physical and mental nutriments: food, contact, intellectual intention, consciousness

     for the six sense-media: eye form six consciousnesses, six contacts, six feelings

     for the five aggregates

     for the self and the world

     for gain, status, praise, pleasure

     for discrimination, views, dispute

     for existence or non-existence

    Second, the root cause of all suffering is ignorance: as schematized with the 12 links of dependent origination (the wheel of life),  starting with ignorance and ending with stress.

     Beings are hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving;

     Ignorance of the Four Noble Truths:

         stress, origin, cessation, path;

         karmic fabrications, origin, cessation, path;

         of anything and everything

     Ignorance of the universal characteristics of all composites: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, not-self

     Ignorance of origination and cessation of the world

     Ignorance that "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation." (and vice versa)

     Ignorance of the real nature of the self

     Ignorance of the real nature of the six sense media; "Not knowing, not seeing [the six sense media] as it actually is present"

     Ignorance of the real nature of five aggregates: nature, origin, cessation, path for each

     Ignorance of the 12 links of dependent origination: nature, origin, cessation, path

     Ignorance of the interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form, their inseparability, their non-duality

     Ignorance of karma: nature, origin, cessation, path

     Ignorance of the real nature of the mind & world; their interdependence, inseparability, non-duality

     Ignorance of the real nature of extreme views (the two extremes, the four extremes, the 10 extreme views, ): nature, origin, cessation, path for each

     Ignorance of the Tetralemma

     Ignorance of the Two Truths and their inseparability; the union of dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence

    Third, the absence of personal direct knowledge of suchness.

    

      'This is the cessation of stress' to be directly experienced ... (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

    Realizing the cessation, the falling away, the non-independence, the necessary dependent cessation of suffering, and of its causes. Realizing the union of tranquility and insight.

    First, the remainderless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, letting go and rejecting of that same craving. (first using temporary adapted skillful means, rules of thumb as proposed by the Buddha, in order to reduce the gross disadvantages of the causes of suffering, until we produce enough calm, peace and concentration to be able to develop real liberating insights)

     Opting for renunciation, shame, concern, morality, patience;

     Abandoning the ten unwholesome actions of body speech and mind; cultivating the ten wholesome actions

     Letting go of the three poisons desire, hatred, delusion, and of other defilements;

     Using temporary antidotes

     Cultivating the four immeasurables: compassion, kindness, joy, equanimity

     Cultivating Bodhicitta

     Trying to see their real nature as they arise

     Seeing everything as like illusions

    Second, the removal of this ignorance (first, conceptually): as schematized with the 12 links of dependent origination (the wheel of life), starting with the cessation of ignorance and ending with the cessation of stress.

     Conceptual understanding of the three universal characteristics.

     Conceptual understanding of stress & karmic formations: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of the five aggregates: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of the 12 links of dependent origination: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of the interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form.

     Conceptual understanding of the real nature of our own mind in action in the present, and thus of the whole world.

     Conceptual understanding of the three universal characteristics: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of views: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of our own body, speech and mind: nature, origin / interdependence / inseparability / non-duality, cessation, path.

     Conceptual understanding of the Two Truths: nature, origin, cessation, path.

    Third having personal direct knowledge of these.

     Direct knowledge of the three universal characteristics.

     Direct knowledge of stress & karmic formations: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of the five aggregates: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of the 12 links of dependent origination: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of the interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form.

     Direct knowledge of the real nature of our own mind in action in the present, and thus of the whole world.

     Direct knowledge of the three universal characteristics: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of views: nature, origin, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of our own body, speech and mind: nature, origin / interdependence / inseparability / non-duality, cessation, path.

     Direct knowledge of the Two Truths: nature, origin, cessation, path.

      'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress' to be developed: (i.e. the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; but gradually seeing through)

    Using a progressive path composed of more and more subtle adapted skillful means, while simultaneously developing the gradual realization of their real nature, until "clear knowing & release" are fully developed.

    Preliminary, having this precious human life; giving; morality; renunciation.

    First, it is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view ... right concentration.

    Second: "Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding."

    Third, using both virtuous methods and wisdom: "A man established in virtue, discerning, (accumulating both merit and wisdom) developing discernment & mind (samatha & vipassana), a monk ardent, astute: he can untangle this tangle [of craving]."

    Fourth, the three trainings: virtue, concentration, wisdom

    Fifth, the union of samatha and vipassana: "A man established in virtue, discerning, (accumulating both merit and wisdom) developing discernment & mind (samatha & vipassana), a monk ardent, astute: he can untangle this tangle [of craving]."

v    "And why have I taught these things? Because they are connected with the goal, relate to the rudiments of the holy life, and lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. This is why I have taught them."

##

The necessity to realize the Four Noble Truths

v    Iti 4:103 : (i.e. The necessity to realize the Four Noble Truths: the origination and cessation of stress/suffering the real nature of stress, of karma, of the mind & world.)

      "This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Any priests or contemplatives who do not discern, as it actually is present,

     that 'This is stress,' ...

     that 'This is the origination of stress,' ...

     that 'This is the cessation of stress,' ...

     that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress':

    to me these priests & contemplatives do not count as priests among priests or as contemplatives among contemplatives. Furthermore, they do not enter & remain in the goal of the priestly life or the goal of the contemplative life, having directly known & made it manifest for themselves right in the present life.

      But any priests or contemplatives who discern, as it actually is present,

     that 'This is stress,' ...

     that 'This is the origination of stress,' ...

     that 'This is the cessation of stress,' ...

     that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress':

    to me these priests & contemplatives count as priests among priests and as contemplatives among contemplatives. Furthermore, they enter & remain in the goal of the priestly life & the goal of the contemplative life, having directly known & made it manifest for themselves right in the present life."

v    Dharmapada 190-192: (i.e. The necessity to realize the Four Noble Truths: the origination and cessation of stress/suffering the real nature of stress, of karma, of the mind & world.)

      " ... when, having gone to the Buddha, Dharma, & Sangha for refuge, you see with right discernment (i.e. has personal direct knowledge of) the four noble truths

     stress, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the cause of stress, (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation of stress, , (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     & the noble eightfold path, the way to the cessation of stress: (i.e. the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; but gradually seeing through)

      that's the secure refuge, that, the supreme refuge, that is the refuge, having gone to which, you gain release from all suffering & stress." (i.e. total unbinding; total freedom from the three poisons and the consequential suffering)

(i.e. Note: Deep concentration, shutting down the mind, is not the goal; it is just a tool, and just a study subject. The goal is all about realizing the Four Noble truths : stress & fabrications should be known, their origination should be know, their cessation should be know, the path leading to their cessation should be known. It is all about realizing the real nature of karma, the real nature of our own mind (self) and of thus of everything in the world (all dharma), their dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence (and the union of those two), their interdependence (one cannot exist without the other; one implies the other), inseparability (they are not different/separate but still not the same), non-duality (not two, not one). Only this wisdom can really Liberate us. Everything else is just adapted skillful means in order to get to this point.)

##

The cause/origin of stress/suffering is craving

v    MN9 - The Discourse on Right View section on the Four Noble Truths : (i.e. The necessity to understand the Four Noble Truths: the origination and cessation of stress/suffering the real nature of stress, of karma, of the mind & world. The origin of all suffering is craving which is ultimately caused by ignorance, thinking things are worthy of craving.)

       When, friends, a noble disciple understands

     suffering, (nature, diversity)

     the origin of suffering, (dependent origination)

     the cessation of suffering, (non-independence, emptiness)

     and the way leading to the cessation of suffering, (path)

in that way he is one of right view ... and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      And what is suffering? (three types of suffering)

    Birth is suffering; aging is suffering; sickness is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; (i.e. physical suffering) not to obtain what one wants is suffering; (i.e. mental suffering) in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering. (i.e. cosmic suffering - universal & essential) This is called suffering.

      And what is the origin of suffering? (three types of craving)

    It is craving, which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for being and craving for non-being. This is called the origin of suffering.

      And what is the cessation of suffering? (seeing through craving)

    It is the remainderless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, letting go and rejecting of that same craving. This is called the cessation of suffering.

      And what is the way leading to the cessation of suffering?

    It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view ... right concentration. This is called the way leading to the cessation of suffering." (The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting)

(i.e. More on craving as the cause of samsara:

      AN6.63: "And what is the cause by which stress comes into play? Craving is the cause by which stress comes into play."

      AN10.92: "The craving that makes for further becoming -- accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now this & now that"

      Iti 15: "Monks, I don't envision even one other fetter -- fettered by which beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time -- like the fetter of craving. Fettered with the fetter of craving, beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time."

      SN22.99:  "Monks, from an inconstruable beginning comes transmigration. A beginning point is not evident, although beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving are transmigrating & wandering on.  ... for beings -- as long as they are hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving, transmigrating & wandering on -- I don't say that there is an end of suffering & stress"

      MN82: "Great king, there are four Dharma summaries stated by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened. Having known & seen & heard them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. Which four? The world is swept away. It does not endure' `The world is without shelter, without protector'`The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind'`The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving'"

The various types of craving:

      MN9: "There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odors, craving for flavors, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects (ideas)."

      Iti 58: "There are these three cravings. Which three? Craving for sensuality, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. These are the three cravings."

      AN4.199: the 108 types of craving-verbalizations

      SN22.22: "And which is the burden? 'The five clinging-aggregates,' ... And which is the taking up of the burden? The craving that makes for further becoming -- accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there -- i.e., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. ... And which is the casting off of the burden? The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving. This is called the casting off of the burden.")

v    MN141 - Discourse on The Analysis of the [Four Noble] Truths : (i.e. The cause/origin of all suffering/stress is craving -- the various types of craving, craving for any extremes: self, existence, non-existence of anything in the world, any of the five aggregates not just craving for our illusory self. In other sutras it will be shown that the root cause for any types of craving, thus of all suffering, is the ignorance of the real nature of the objects we crave for, of stress itself, of karma, of the mind & world that is the ignorance of the origination and cessation.)

      "What, your reverence, is the Noble Truth of suffering? (three types of suffering)

    Birth is suffering; aging is suffering; death is suffering; grief, lamentation, bodily pain, mental pain and despair are suffering; not getting what one desires, that too is suffering: In brief the five aggregates subject to grasping are suffering. What is (each one of them) ...

      What is the Noble Truth of the arising of suffering? (origination, cause -- three types of craving)

    It is this craving which produces re-becoming (re-birth) accompanied by passionate greed, and finding delight now here now there, namely [the three types of craving : ]

     the craving for sense pleasures, (i.e. See above for more on craving as the cause of all suffering, and on the various types of craving.)

     craving for existence and craving for non-existence. (i.e. See bellow for more on the craving for the duality existence vs. non-existence, and its relation to the ignorance of the arising and cessation of all dharma.)

    This is called the Noble Truth of the arising of suffering.

      What is the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering? (seeing through craving)

    It is the complete cessation of that very craving, giving it up, relinquishing it, liberating oneself from it, and detaching oneself from it. This is called the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering.

     (i.e. As shown bellow, this abandonment or cessation of this craving cannot be faked by artificially dropping everything now; it has to be accomplished by developing true wisdom using the Middle Way = the Noble Eightfold Path.)

      And what is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the cessation of suffering? (The Middle Way)

    It is this Noble Eightfold Path itself, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

     What is (each one of them) ... "

(i.e. More on the Middle Way as the Noble Eightfold Path:

      AN56.11 : "Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that -- producing vision, producing knowledge -- leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding."

      SN7.6 : "A man established in virtue, discerning, (accumulating both merit and wisdom) developing discernment & mind (samatha & vipassana), a monk ardent, astute: he can untangle this tangle [of craving]. Those whose passion, aversion, & ignorance (the three poisons) have faded away (through direct knowledge), Arhats, their effluents ended: for them the tangle's untangled.")

More on the craving for the duality existence vs. non-existence, and its relation to the ignorance of the arising and cessation of all dharma:

      SN12.15 & SN22.90: By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity (i.e. duality), that of existence & non-existence. But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing origination = realizing the not non-existence = realizing Dependent Origination of all dharma). When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing cessation = realizing the not existence = realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma) (i.e. This is about the dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma in the world, or about the Middle Way between existence and non-existence, ) 'Everything exists': That is one extreme. (i.e. Realism) 'Everything doesn't exist': That is a second extreme.  (i.e. Quietism, idealism and nihilism) Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle: [ the 12 links of dependent origination]

      Note: so craving for existence and non-existence is more than just about the existence and non-existence of the self, it is about the existence and non-existence of the world, of any/all dharma. And it is by directly realizing the dependent arising (dependent origination) and necessary subsequent cessation (non-independence, emptiness of inherent existence) [, and their interdependence or inseparability]  of the five aggregates that is the key to Liberation.

      MN11: Bhikkhus, there are these two views: the view of being and the view of non-being. ... Any recluses or Brahmins who do not understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger and the escape in the case of these two views are affected by lust, affected by hate, affected by delusion, affected by craving, affected by clinging, without vision, given to favoring and opposing, and they delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are not freed from birth, aging and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair; they are not freed from suffering, I say. Any recluses or Brahmins who understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger and the escape in the case of these two views are without lust (or acceptation), without hate (or rejection), without delusion (or fermentations), without craving, without clinging, with vision, not given to favoring and opposing, and they do not delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are freed from birth, aging and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair; they are freed from suffering, I say."

      MN18: "The sort of doctrine, friend, where one does not keep quarreling with anyone in the cosmos with its deities, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & common folk; the sort [of doctrine] where perceptions no longer obsess the brahman who remains dissociated from sensual pleasures, free from perplexity, his uncertainty cut away, devoid of craving for becoming & non-becoming. Such is my doctrine, such is what I proclaim."

      MN12.38: "[EXTREME 1:] What one intends, what one arranges, and what one obsesses about: (i.e. craving for being, wanting to get, to do) ... [EXTREME 2:] If one doesn't intend and doesn't arrange, but one still obsesses [about something] (i.e. craving for non-being, rejecting, dropping), this is a support for the stationing of consciousness. There being a support, there is a landing of consciousness. When that consciousness lands and grows, there is the production of renewed becoming in the future. When there is the production of renewed becoming in the future, there is future birth, aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair. Such [too] is the origination of this entire mass of suffering & stress. [THE MIDDLE WAY:] But when one doesn't intend, arrange, or obsess [about anything], there is no support for the stationing of consciousness. There being no support, there is no landing of consciousness. When that consciousness doesn't land & grow, there is no production of renewed becoming in the future. When there is no production of renewed becoming in the future, there is no future birth, aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of suffering & stress.")

v    AN56.11 - Setting the Wheel of Dharma in Motion : (i.e. The four Noble Truths have to be comprehended, abandoned, directly experienced, developed What has to be conceptually comprehended and then directly realized is the origination and cessation of all dharma, and the inseparability of this dependent co-origination and necessary cessation (emptiness of inherent existence).)

      Now this, monks, is the noble truth of stress: (three types of suffering)

    Birth is stressful, ageing is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful, separation from the loved is stressful, not getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance are stressful.

      And this, monks, is the noble truth of the origination of stress: (origination/cause; three types of craving; duality of existence)

    the craving that makes for further becoming -- accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there -- i.e., [the three types of craving : ]

     the craving for sense pleasures, (i.e. See above for more on craving as the cause of all suffering, and on the various types of craving.)

     craving for existence and craving for non-existence. (i.e. See above for more on the craving for the duality existence vs. non-existence, and its relation to the ignorance of the arising and cessation of all dharma.)

      And this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of stress: (seeing through craving)

     the remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.

      And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: (see above for more on the Middle Way)

    precisely this Noble Eightfold Path -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. ...

[To comprehend, abandon, directly realize and develop:]

      This noble truth of stress is to be comprehended ... (i.e. MN149: "And what qualities are to be comprehended through direct knowledge? `The five aggregates of clinging/sustenance'..." cosmic suffering: "the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering")

      This noble truth of the origination of stress is to be abandoned ... (i.e. MN149: "And what qualities are to be abandoned through direct knowledge? Ignorance & craving for becoming..." both are considered as the cause of all suffering depending on the subtlety of the analysis.)

      This noble truth of the cessation of stress is to be directly experienced ... (i.e. MN149: "And what qualities are to be developed through direct knowledge? Tranquility & insight..." the union of samatha & vipassana the only way to directly realize the real nature of our own mind in the present, and of the world.)

      This noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress is to be developed ... (i.e. MN149: "And what qualities are to be realized through direct knowledge? Clear knowing & release..." -- Clear knowing is the opposite of ignorance, it is true wisdom beyond all conceptualization, direct knowledge of ...)

      as soon as this knowledge & vision of mine -- with its three rounds & twelve permutations concerning these four noble truths as they actually are present -- was truly pure, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its deities, Maras & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk. Knowledge & vision arose in me: `Unprovoked is my release. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.

      Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation. (i.e. That is what has to be realized. Everything is empty of inherent existence (not existent, falling away) because dependently co-arisen (not non-existent, arisen); and vice versa. The universality and inseparability of dependent origination and the necessary cessation (or emptiness of inherent existence). That is the meaning of the Four Noble truths (origination & cessation).)

v    Iti 112: (i.e. The Four Noble Truths about the world & mind.)

    "The world has been fully awakened to [i.e. comprehended] by the Tathagata. From the world, the Tathagata is disjoined. (i.e. He has personal direct knowledge of the world & mind the five aggregates, its nature, its diversity.)

    The origination of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The origination of the world has, by the Tathagata, been abandoned. (i.e. He has personal direct knowledge of the dependently co-arisen nature of the world & mind. He has seen through the causes of karma, and remove the craving and the ignorance, the root cause of all craving, defilements, and suffering.)

    The cessation of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The cessation of the world has, by the Tathagata, been realized [i.e. directly experienced]. (i.e. He has personal direct knowledge of the dependent cessation of the world & mind, its non-independence, its emptiness of inherent existence. He has fully realized the perfect union of samatha and vipassana, the Union of the Two Truths.)

    The path leading to the cessation of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The path leading to the cessation of the world has, by the Tathagata, been developed. (i.e. He has personal direct knowledge of the path, of the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting, between existence and non-existence. and has personal direct knowledge of clear knowing & release. without abandoning all the other sentient beings stuck in samsara and still helping them out of compassion.)

      Directly knowing all the world [and mind, since they are inseparable], all the world as is actually is, from all the world disjoined, in all the world unmatched: Absolute conqueror of all, wise, released from all bonds, he touches the highest peace -- Unbinding, which is free from fear. He is effluent-free, awakened, trouble-free, his doubts demolished, has attained the ending of action, is released in the destruction of acquisitions. "

v    DN22 - The Great [Four] Frames of Reference - Section of the Four Noble Truths : (i.e. More on craving craving for what ? craving because of what ? For the five aggregates, for the six sense-media, for the self and for the world. All of this because of now being fully aware of their dependent origination and necessary cessation (emptiness of inherent existence), and inseparability ... because of ignorance of their real nature, because of not knowing the Middle Way.)

      Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths? There is the case where he discerns, as it is actually present, that

     'This is stress,' ... (nature, diversity)

     'This is the origination of stress,'... (dependent origination)

     'This is the cessation of stress,' ... (emptiness)

     'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress'.

      Now what is the noble truth of stress? (three types of suffering)

    Birth is stress, aging is stress, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with the unbeloved is stress; separation from the loved is stress; not getting what is wanted is stress; not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance are stress. ... (see each in detail)

      And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress? (origination/cause; three types of craving; duality of existence)

    The craving that makes for further becoming (strong desire for pleasant things) -- accompanied by passion & delight, relishing (to enjoy the flavor of ... ) now here & now there -- i.e., (three types of craving)

     craving for sensuality, (i.e. See above for more on craving as the cause of all suffering, and on the various types of craving.)

     craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. (i.e. See above for more on the craving for the duality existence vs. non-existence, and its relation to the ignorance of the arising and cessation of all dharma.)

And where does this craving, when arising, arise? And where, when dwelling, does it dwell?

    Whatever is endearing & alluring in terms of the world: that is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells (to live in a given place or state).

"And what is endearing & alluring in terms of the world?

    The eye is endearing & alluring in terms of the world. That is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells. (i.e. this craving starts with eye + form -- contact, ) The ear ...The nose ...The tongue ...The body ...The intellect ...

    Forms ...Sounds ...Smells ...Tastes ...Tactile sensations ...Ideas ...

    Eye-consciousness ...Ear-consciousness ...Nose-consciousness ... Tongue-consciousness ...Body-consciousness ... Intellect-consciousness ...

    Eye-contact ...Ear-contact ...Nose-contact ...Tongue-contact ... Body-contact ... Intellect-contact ...

    Feeling born of eye-contact ...Feeling born of ear-contact ...Feeling born of nose-contact ...Feeling born of tongue-contact ... Feeling born of body-contact ... Feeling born of intellect-contact ...

    Perception of forms ...Perception of sounds ...Perception of smells ... Perception of tastes ...Perception of tactile sensations ... Perception of ideas ...

    Intention for forms ...Intention for sounds ...Intention for smells ... Intention for tastes ...Intention for tactile sensations ...Intention for ideas ...

    Craving for forms ...Craving for sounds ...Craving for smells ... Craving for tastes ...Craving for tactile sensations ...Craving for ideas ...

    Thought directed at forms ...Thought directed at sounds ...Thought directed at smells ...Thought directed at tastes ...Thought directed at tactile sensations ...Thought directed at ideas ...

    Evaluation of forms ...Evaluation of sounds ...Evaluation of smells ... Evaluation of tastes ...Evaluation of tactile sensations ...Evaluation of ideas is endearing & alluring in terms of the world.

    That is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells.

      And what is the noble truth of the cessation of stress? The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving. (seeing through craving)

And where, when being abandoned, is this craving abandoned? And where, when ceasing, does it cease?

    Whatever is endearing & alluring in terms of the world: that is where, when being abandoned, this craving is abandoned. That is where, when ceasing, it ceases.

And what is endearing & alluring in terms of the world?

    The eye is endearing & alluring in terms of the world. That is where, when being abandoned, this craving is abandoned. That is where, when ceasing, it ceases. The ear ...The nose ...The tongue ...The body ...The intellect ...

    Forms ...Sounds ...Smells ...Tastes ...Tactile sensations ...Ideas ...

    Eye-consciousness ...Ear-consciousness ... Nose-consciousness ... Tongue -consciousness ... Body-consciousness ... Intellect-consciousness ...

    Eye-contact ...Ear-contact ...Nose-contact ...Tongue-contact ...Body-contact ... Intellect-contact ...

    Feeling born of eye-contact ...Feeling born of ear-contact ...Feeling born of nose-contact ...Feeling born of tongue-contact ...Feeling born of body-contact ... Feeling born of intellect-contact ...

    Perception of forms ...Perception of sounds ...Perception of smells ... Perception of tastes ...Perception of tactile sensations ...Perception of ideas ...

    Intention for forms ...Intention for sounds ...Intention for smells ... Intention for tastes ...Intention for tactile sensations ...Intention for ideas ...

    Craving for forms ...Craving for sounds ...Craving for smells ... Craving for tastes ...Craving for tactile sensations ...Craving for ideas ...

    Thought directed at forms ...Thought directed at sounds ...Thought directed at smells ...Thought directed at tastes ...Thought directed at tactile sensations ...Thought directed at ideas ...

    Evaluation of forms ...Evaluation of sounds ...Evaluation of smells ... Evaluation of tastes ...Evaluation of tactile sensations ...Evaluation of ideas is endearing & alluring in terms of the world.

    That is where, when being abandoned, this craving is abandoned. That is where, when ceasing, it ceases. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress? (the Middle Way)

     Just this very noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

v    SN12.44 The World : "I will teach you the origination of the world & the ending of the world. (i.e. The cause of the whole world and of all suffering is the craving resulting from contacts and feelings. The way out, the way to transcend it all, is to find a way to stop this craving. And this is done, not by dropping all contacts, not by shutting down our senses and mind, but by directly realizing the real nature of the objects of craving, ; by realizing the real nature of this whole dependently arisen process that lead to craving and suffering; by seeing through the whole process of karma formation and conditioning.)

      And what is the origination of the world? (i.e. The dependent co-origination of the world, and of suffering.)

    Dependent on the eye & forms there arises eye-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming. From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play. This is the origination of the world.

    Dependent on the ear & sounds there arises ear-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the nose & aromas there arises nose-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the tongue & flavors there arises tongue-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the body & tactile sensations there arises body-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the intellect & mental qualities there arises intellect-consciousness.

      And what is the ending of the world? (i.e. The dependent cessation or non-independence, or emptiness of inherent existence of the world, and of suffering.)

    Dependent on the eye & forms there arises eye-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. Now, from the remainderless cessation & fading away of that very craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is the ending of the world.

    Dependent on the ear & sounds there arises ear-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact .... Dependent on the nose & aromas there arises nose-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the tongue & flavors there arises tongue-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the body & tactile sensations there arises body-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the intellect & mental qualities there arises intellect-consciousness. "

##

The root cause of craving is ignorance; that is what has to be removed

v    AN3.61 - Tittha Sutra Sectarians : (i.e. The root cause of all suffering, of all types of craving, is the ignorance of the real nature of the objects of craving, of the five aggregates, of the mind & world; the ignorance of their arising and cessation; the ignorance of the dependent co-origination and necessary cessation (non-independence / emptiness of inherent existence); and their inseparability. So the only way to transcend all causes for suffering, the three poisons, is to remove this ignorance with direct knowledge, with clear knowing and release. And this is done only by following the Middle Way, the Noble Eightfold Path, combining both virtuous methods and insight, thus in accord with reality -- Note: the relation between stress and ignorance is schematized by the wheel of life and the 12 links of dependent origination. The detailed description of each of those 12 links is very long, and should be carefully studied. Going one way, the wheel depicts the dark path, the origination of bad karma and the rebirths in samsara. Going the other way, the wheel depicts the white path, the creation of good habits that will ultimately permit to transcend the three poisons and all karma formations, and thus obtain the cessation of  all suffering.)

    " There are these six properties ...

    There are these six media of sensory contact ...

    There are these eighteen explorations for the intellect ...

    There are these four noble truths is a Dharma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives. ...

      And what is the noble truth of stress? (three types of suffering)

    Birth is stress, aging is stress, death is stress; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with what is not loved is stress, separation from what is loved is stress, not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance are stress. This is called the noble truth of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress? (origination/cause; ignorance it the root of all suffering)

    From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications [the formation of karma, of the body & mind, of the conditioning].

    From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness.

    From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form. (i.e. In other sutras it will be shown that consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, and do not go further. That is the nature of karma. That is what has to be realized.)

    From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media.

    From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact.

    From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

    From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

    From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance.

    From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

    From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

    From birth as a requisite condition, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play.

      Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origination of stress.

      (i.e. the origin of stress is not just craving, but ignorance of arising and falling away of the five aggregates, of the interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form, etc. each being a more subtle realization.

      SN22.99: "But for beings -- as long as they are hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving, transmigrating & wandering on -- I don't say that there is an end of suffering & stress"

      Note: So this craving is abandoned only by removing this ignorance; it cannot be faked by artificially trying to drop all craving now.)

      And what is the noble truth of the cessation of stress? (seeing through craving, through karma, and directly realizing the real nature of our own mind and thus of everything, removing this ignorance with wisdom)

    From the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications.

    From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness.

    From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form. (i.e. In other sutras it will be shown that consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, and do not go further. That is what has to be realized. That is the ignorance that has to be removed.)

    From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media.

    From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact.

    From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling.

    From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving.

    From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance.

    From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming.

    From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth.

    From the cessation of birth, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease.

      Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress? (the Middle Way)

    Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. "

(i.e. More the need to remove this ignorance through understanding and direct knowledge:

      SN22.101: "It is for one who knows & sees [the origination and cessation of the five aggregates] that there is the ending of the effluents. ... Even though this wish may occur to a monk who dwells without devoting himself to development. ... 'O that my mind might be released from effluents through lack of clinging!' -- still his mind is not released from the effluents through lack of clinging. Why is that? From lack of developing [the 37 qualities / factors / wings of awakening]"

      MN11: Bhikkhus, there are these two views: the view of being and the view of non-being. ... Any recluses or Brahmins who do not understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger and the escape in the case of these two views are affected by lust, affected by hate, affected by delusion, affected by craving, affected by clinging, without vision, given to favoring and opposing, and they delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are not freed from birth, aging and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair; they are not freed from suffering, I say. Any recluses or Brahmins who understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger and the escape in the case of these two views are without lust (or acceptation), without hate (or rejection), without delusion (or fermentations), without craving, without clinging, with vision, not given to favoring and opposing, and they do not delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are freed from birth, aging and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair; they are freed from suffering, I say."

      SN12.15 & SN22.90: By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity (i.e. duality), that of existence & non-existence. But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one(i.e. realizing origination = realizing the not non-existence = realizing Dependent Origination of all dharma). When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing cessation = realizing the not existence = realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma) (i.e. This is about the dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma in the world, or about the Middle Way between existence and non-existence, ) 'Everything exists': That is one extreme. (i.e. Realism) 'Everything doesn't exist': That is a second extreme. (i.e. Quietism, idealism and nihilism) Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination]

      Note: so this craving is caused by this ignorance which comes down to falling into one extreme of another. And Liberation is gained by staying away from all extremes after removing this ignorance.

      SN12.63: "When physical food is comprehended, passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended.

    When passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended, there is no fetter bound by which a disciple of the noble ones would come back again to this world.

    When the nutriment of contact is comprehended, the three feelings [pleasure, pain, neither pleasure nor pain] are comprehended.

    When the three feelings are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do.

    When the nutriment of intellectual intention is comprehended, the three forms of craving [for sensuality, for becoming, and for non-becoming] are comprehended.

    When the three forms of craving are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do.

    When the nutriment of consciousness is comprehended, name & form are comprehended.

    When name & form are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do.")

v    SN45.1 Ignorance :

      "Monks, ignorance is the leader in the attainment of unskillful qualities, followed by lack of conscience & lack of concern.

    In a unknowledgeable person, immersed in ignorance, wrong view arises.

    In one of wrong view, wrong resolve arises.

    In one of wrong resolve, wrong speech ....

    In one of wrong speech, wrong action ....

    In one of wrong action, wrong livelihood ....

    In one of wrong livelihood, wrong effort ....

    In one of wrong effort, wrong mindfulness ....

    In one of wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration arises.

      Clear knowing is the leader in the attainment of skillful qualities, followed by conscience & concern.

    In a knowledgeable person, immersed in clear knowing, right view arises.

    In one of right view, right resolve arises.

    In one of right resolve, right speech ....

    In one of right speech, right action ....

    In one of right action, right livelihood ....

    In one of right livelihood, right effort ....

    In one of right effort, right mindfulness ....

    In one of right mindfulness, right concentration arises."

v    SN12.2: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising:

      "And what is ignorance?

     Not knowing stress,

     not knowing the origination of stress,

     not knowing the cessation of stress,

     not knowing the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress:

      This is called ignorance.

##

The solution is to remove this ignorance of the arising & cessation of the five aggregates, of the 12 links, of the inseparability of world and mind

v    SN12.23 Prerequisites : "Monks, the ending of the effluents is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what is there the ending of effluents?

      'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance.

      Such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance.

      Such is perception, such its origination, such its disappearance.

      Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their disappearance.

      Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

      The ending of the effluents is for one who knows in this way & sees in this way."

v    SN12.15 - To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) & SN22.90: By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity (i.e. duality), that of existence & non-existence.

      But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing origination = realizing the not non-existence = realizing Dependent Origination of all dharma, of the world and mind).

      When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing cessation = realizing the not existence = realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma. of the world and mind)

    'Everything exists': That is one extreme. (i.e. Realism)

    'Everything doesn't exist': That is a second extreme.  (i.e. Quietism, idealism and nihilism)

    Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination: origination and cessation]

v    SN22.57 The Seven Bases : (i.e. Realizing the real nature of the five aggregates; their arising and failing away; their dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence using the progressive path combining virtuous methods and wisdom.) "And how is a monk skilled in seven bases?

      There is the case where a monk discerns

     form, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the origination of form, (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation of form, (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     the path of practice leading to the cessation of form. (i.e. the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; but gradually seeing through)

     He discerns the allure of form, the drawback of form, and the escape from form.

      "He discerns

     feeling, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the origination (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     the path of practice leading to the cessation

     He discerns the allure, the drawback, and the escape

      "He discerns

     perception, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the origination (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     the path of practice leading to the cessation

     He discerns the allure, the drawback, and the escape

      "He discerns

     fabrications, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the origination (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     the path of practice leading to the cessation

     He discerns the allure, the drawback, and the escape

      "He discerns

     consciousness, (i.e. nature, diversity )

     the origination (i.e. dependent origination)

     the cessation (i.e. non-independence, emptiness)

     the path of practice leading to the cessation

     He discerns the allure, the drawback, and the escape

      "And how does a monk have three modes of investigation? There is the case where a monk

     investigates in terms of properties,

     investigates in terms of sense spheres,

     investigates in terms of dependent co-arising.

      The fact that form is inconstant, stressful, subject to change: that is the drawback of form. "

v    SN12.65 - The City : (i.e. Realizing the real nature of the 12 links explaining the origin of all suffering; their arising and failing away; their dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence using the progressive path combining virtuous methods and wisdom.) "In the same way I saw an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times.

      Following it, I came to direct knowledge of

     aging & death,

     of the origination of aging & death,

     of the cessation of aging & death,

     of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death.

      I came to direct knowledge of

     birth (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     becoming (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     clinging (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     craving (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     feeling (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     contact (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     the six sense media (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     name-&-form (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation

      I came to direct knowledge of

     consciousness, (nature, diversity )

     of the origination (dependent origination)

     of the cessation (non-independence, emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation (i.e. In other sutras it will be shown that consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, and do not go further. That is the nature of karma. That is what has to be realized.)

      I followed that path. "Following it, I came to direct knowledge of

     fabrications, (nature, diversity )

     of the origination of fabrications.(dependent origination)

     of the cessation of fabrications. (emptiness)

     of the path of practice leading to the cessation of fabrications. (the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; but gradually seeing through.)

Knowing that directly, I have revealed it to monks, nuns, male lay followers & female lay followers, so that this holy life has become powerful, rich, detailed, well-populated, wide-spread, proclaimed among celestial & human beings."

v    SN12.65 The City & SN12.67 Sheaves of Reeds : "From my appropriate attention there came the breakthrough of discernment:

      from name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness;

      from consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form;

      from the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of consciousness;

      from the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form; "

      consciousness (self / mind) name-&-form (world / five aggregates);

      one cannot exist without the other; they are interdependent; inseparable: not different, not the same; non-dual: not two, not one.

      the interdependence of the world and mind." [It all comes down to realizing the Union of dependent origination & emptiness of the world & mind the Union of Two Truths.]

v    SN22.55 Exclamation (i.e. The self/consciousness is not the same as name-&-form/five-aggregates, nor it is different/separate. They are interdependent, inseparable, non-dual: not two, not one.)

      When this was said, a certain monk said to the Blessed One, "In what way would a monk set on this -- 'It should not be, it should not occur to me; it will not be, it will not occur to me' -- break the [five] lower fetters?"

      There is the case, monk, where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person ...

    assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. [the same for the other aggregates] ...

    "He does not discern, as it actually is, inconstant form as 'inconstant form.' ...

    stressful form as 'stressful form' ...

    not-self form as 'not-self form' ...

    fabricated form as 'fabricated form' ...

    that 'form will stop being' ...

      "Now, a well-instructed disciple of the noble ones ...

    does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form.

    "He discerns, as it actually is, inconstant form as 'inconstant form' ...

    stressful form as 'stressful form' ...

    not-self form as 'not-self form' ...

    fabricated form as 'fabricated form' ...

    that 'form will stop being' ...

      "From the stopping of form, [the same for the other aggregates] ..., a monk set on this -- 'It should not be, it should not occur to me; it will not be, it will not occur to me' -- would break the [five] lower fetters." (i.e. Realizing the three universal characteristics permits to abandon the five lower fetters. But, one should not go overboard about this, fear the five aggregates, and try to artificially reject them:)

      "Lord, a monk set on this would break the [five] lower fetters. But for one knowing in what way, seeing in what way, is there the immediate ending of fermentations?" (i.e. Total Unbinding is not done by accepting or grasping at the five aggregates, not by rejecting them out of fear. It is reached by the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; by realizing their real nature. Only then do the three poisons automatically drop by themselves.)

    "There is the case where an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person ... falls into fear over what is not grounds for fear. There is fear for an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person [who thinks], 'It should not be, it should not occur to me; it will not be, it will not occur to me.'

    But an instructed disciple of the noble ones does not fall into fear over what is not grounds for fear. There is no fear for an instructed disciple of the noble ones [who thinks], 'It should not be, it should not occur to me; it will not be, it will not occur to me.'

      "Should consciousness, when standing (still), stand attached

    to (a physical) form, supported by form (as its object), established on form, watered with delight, it would exhibit growth, increase, & proliferation.

    to feeling,

    to perception,

    to fabrications,

      "Were someone to say, 'I will describe a coming, a going, a passing away, an arising, a growth, an increase, or a proliferation of consciousness apart from form, from feeling, from perception, from fabrications,' that would be impossible. (i.e. There is no consciousness different / separate from name-&-form, even if it is not the same. There is no self different / separate from the  five aggregates, even if it is not the same. So it is not about rejecting them, no more than about accepting them or changing them.)

      [But:]

    "If a monk abandons passion for the property of form ...

    "If a monk abandons passion for the property of feeling ...

    "If a monk abandons passion for the property of perception ...

    "If a monk abandons passion for the property of fabrications ...

    "If a monk abandons passion for the property of consciousness, then owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no base for consciousness. Consciousness, thus unestablished, not proliferating, not performing any function, is released. Owing to its release, it stands still. Owing to its stillness, it is contented. Owing to its contentment, it is not agitated. Not agitated, he (the monk) is totally unbound right within. He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

      "For one knowing in this way, seeing in this way, monk, there is the immediate ending of fermentations."

v    AN4.5 With the Flow : "And who is the individual who has crossed over, gone beyond, who stands on firm ground: a brahman? There is the case where an individual, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & made them manifest for himself right in the here & now. This is called the individual who has crossed over, gone beyond, who stands on firm ground: a brahman." In one who, having known, qualities high & low have been destroyed, have gone to their end, do not exist: He's called a master of knowledge, one who has fulfilled the holy life, gone to the world's end, gone beyond." (i.e. Transcending the world & mind means to have personal direct knowledge of them; to not being fooled by them anymore. It doesnt mean to have rejected them, or that they are completely non-existent. The Middle Way is not accepting, not rejecting; between existence and non-existence. It means to have personal direct knowledge of their arising and cessation; of their dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence; of the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness; and the inseparability of the world and mind.)

v    AN3.65 - To the Kalamas: "the Blessed One is thus consummate, fully enlightened, endowed with knowledge and practice, sublime, knower of the worlds [and mind, since they are inseparable], peerless, guide of tamable men, teacher of divine and human beings, which he by himself has through direct knowledge understood clearly. "

v    SN56.31 The Simsapa Leaves : (i.e. The teaching about the Four Noble Truths is just the tip of the iceberg; the Buddha has realized much more, but didnt taught about it because it is not necessary on the path.) "In the same way, monks, those things that I have known with direct knowledge [of the world and mind] but have not taught are far more numerous [than what I have taught]. And why haven't I taught them? Because they are not connected with the goal, do not relate to the rudiments of the holy life, and do not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. That is why I have not taught them. And what have I taught? 'This is stress ... This is the origination of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress': This is what I have taught. And why have I taught these things? Because they are connected with the goal, relate to the rudiments of the holy life, and lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. This is why I have taught them. Therefore your duty is the contemplation, 'This is stress ... This is the origination of stress ... This is the cessation of stress.' Your duty is the contemplation, 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.'"

Impermanence

The three universal characteristics of phenomena: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and no-self

v    AN3.134 - The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dharma :

      "Monks, whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: All processes are inconstant / [impermanent]. (i.e. Thus, not worthy of uncontrolled grasping and of suffering because of them they are all subject to cessation because they are all dependently arisen and "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation." (and vice versa). That is the same thing as saying "Everything is empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen." (and vice versa). Impermanence is just more easy to understand for beginners than emptiness. But, impermanence means not permanent, not existing on its own independently of everything else, thus empty of inherent existence.) The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are inconstant.

      Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: All processes are stressful / [unsatisfying]. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are stressful.

      Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: All phenomena are not-self / [not the same as the self]. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All phenomena are not-self."

##

The need for conceptual understanding first, and then personal direct knowledge of this

v    The Trilogy of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta - By Bhikkhu Bodhi : These universal characteristics of phenomena [namely, impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and egolessness or not-self] have to be understood in two stages: first intellectually, by reflection; and thereafter by direct insight or realization through insight meditation. When we explain these intellectually, we should not make this a substitute for practice, but only take it as a guideline for understanding what has to be seen by the actual practice of insight meditation.

##

The four perversions

v    AN4.49 - Perversions : "Monks, there are these four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view. Which four?

      'Constant' with regard to the inconstant is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view.

      'Pleasant' with regard to the stressful is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view.

      'Self' with regard to not-self is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.)

      'Attractive' with regard to the unattractive is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view."

v    AN4.252 - Searches : "Monks, these four are ignoble searches. Which four? There is the case where a person,

      being subject himself to aging, seeks [happiness in] what is subject to aging.

      Being subject himself to illness, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to illness.

      Being subject himself to death, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to death.

      Being subject himself to defilement, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to defilement."

v    The Trilogy of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta - By Bhikkhu Bodhi : Ignorance functions in two ways, negative and positive.

      On the negative side it simply obstructs us from seeing things as they are; it throws up clouds of mental darkness.

      On the positive side, it creates in the mind illusions called perversions. Due to these perversions, we see things in quite the opposite way from the way they really are. [see the list above]

      These illusions give rise to craving, conceit, wrong view and all other defilements, and in that way we become entangled in dukkha.

v    Aryadevas 400 first four chapters :

      Abandoning Belief in Permanence - Thinking things are static - perceiving constancy in the inconstant

      Abandoning Belief in Pleasure - Thinking some things are essentially pleasant - perceiving pleasure in the stressful

      Abandoning Belief in Cleanness - Thinking some things are essentially attractive - perceiving attractiveness in the unattractive

      Abandoning Pride - Identifying our "self" with some absolute attributes ... - perceiving self in what's not-self

v    Nagarjunas Karikas Chapter 23 An Analysis of Errors (viparyasa, perversion) : About the Middle Way approach to these perversions that are not inherently existing.

##

The two aspects of impermanence: gross, subtle

v    The Trilogy of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta - By Bhikkhu Bodhi : The mark of impermanence has two aspects, a) gross and b)subtle.

      a) The gross mark of impermanence is fully evident as soon as you pay attention to it. If we do so it becomes clear

     that everything that arises must at some time pass away,

     that whatever comes into being must pass out of being,

     that whatever is put together at some time comes apart.

    This is evident in the cosmic process, in the course of history and in the course of our lives.

    The Buddha teaches that the cosmic process goes through four stages of development.

     It emerges from a state of undifferentiated matter.

     It evolves to a point of maximum differentiation.

     It begins to disintegrate.

     Then it reaches a stage of total disintegration, destruction.

    Then after sometime, the process repeats itself.

    In this way every world system arises, evolves and passes away.

     In history we find the same pattern. A civilizations arises, reaches its zenith, declines and eventually perishes.

     In life, we are born and grow up, when growth reaches the maximum it is followed by ageing decay and death.

     Nothing in life is absolutely reliable.

     Fortune changes, character and relationships evolve and dissolve.

    That is the gross or coarse feature of impermanence.

      b) The subtle mark of impermanence is more difficult to grasp.

    This indicates not only that everything produced eventually perishes, but that being itself is really a process of becoming. Buddha points out that there are no static entities, but only dynamic processes which appear to us to be stable and static only because our perception is not sharp enough to detect the changes. Things themselves are constantly undergoing changes just as a waterfall is always changing but from a distance it seems solid, because we can't perceive the flow.

##

The three stages of development: arising, transformation/change, cessation

v    AN3.47 - Fabricated :

      "Monks, these three are fabricated characteristics of what is fabricated. Which three?

     Arising is discernible,

     passing away is discernible,

     alteration (other-ness) while staying is discernible."

(i.e. Note "fabricated characteristics of what is fabricated", meaning even those three characteristics are not real; they are also fabricated like everything else. And it is the same for the three universal characteristics of all phenomena, etc. Impermanence is also impermanent, unsatisfying, and emptiness is also empty of inherent existence )

v    The Trilogy of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta - By Bhikkhu Bodhi : According to the Buddha all momentary happenings go through three stages, three submoments:

     a moment of arising,

     finally a moment of perishing,

     and between the two "a transformation of that which stands". This intermediate stage means that even in the brief moment that a thing exists it isn't static but changing, a process, a flux of becoming. The stable entities that we see are really bundles of events, "packages" of momentary flashings strung together by laws of conditionality.

(i.e. Since nothing really exist and stays the same even for the most infinitesimal moment; then nothing really is existent and changing. To say that something exist and change is an oxymoron. But that doesnt mean tat everything is completely non-existent either. The Middle Way between existence and non-existence.)

##

The whole world, everything, is impermanent

Impermanence of the world

v    MN82 - About Ratthapala : "Great king, there are four Dharma summaries stated by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened. Having known & seen & heard them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. Which four?

      `The world is swept away. It does not endure' (i.e. Nothing is worthy of absolute trust, or grasping. We grasp at things and beings because we ignore, or are not constantly aware of their real nature.)

      `The world is without shelter, without protector' (i.e. There is no absolute protection from anything.)

      `The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind' (i.e. How can we own, in absolute terms, something that is continually changing, never the same, and eventually inevitably ceasing. Even the owner is like that.)

      `The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving'" (i.e. But we keep forgetting this and grasp at the world as if everything was real and permanent.)

v    SN35.82 - The World : "'The world, the world (loka),' it is said. In what respect does the word 'world' apply? Insofar as it disintegrates (lujjati), monk, it is called the 'world.' Now what disintegrates? (i.e. The six sense-media are dependently arisen, ever changing, impermanent, unsatisfying, not-self, empty of inherent existence.)

      The eye disintegrates. Forms disintegrate. Consciousness at the eye consciousness disintegrates. Contact at the eye disintegrates. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the eye [feelings ] -- experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasure-nor-pain -- that too disintegrates.

      The ear disintegrates. Sounds disintegrate...

      The nose disintegrates. Aromas disintegrate...

      The tongue disintegrates. Tastes disintegrate...

      The body disintegrates. Tactile sensations disintegrate...

      The intellect disintegrates. Ideas disintegrate. Consciousness at the intellect consciousness disintegrates. Contact at the intellect disintegrates. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the intellect -- experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasure-nor-pain -- that too disintegrates. Insofar as it disintegrates, it is called the 'world.'"

v    AN8.6 - The Failings of the World : (i.e. We grasp at gain, status, praise, pleasure, because we thing they are worthy of grasping, because we think they are permanent, satisfying, controllable, real; because we ignore their real nature: impermanent, unsatisfying, not-self, dependently arisen, empty of inherent existence. But if we realize this we can become free from them.)

      "Gain arises for an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person. He does not reflect, 'Gain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He does not discern it as it actually is.

      Loss arises .... Status arises .... Disgrace arises .... Censure arises .... Praise arises .... Pleasure arises .... Pain arises. He does not reflect, 'Pain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He does not discern it as it actually is.

      His mind remains consumed with the gain. His mind remains consumed with the loss ... with the status ... the disgrace ... the censure ... the praise ... the pleasure. His mind remains consumed with the pain. He welcomes the arisen gain and rebels against the arisen loss. He welcomes the arisen status and rebels against the arisen disgrace. He welcomes the arisen praise and rebels against the arisen censure. He welcomes the arisen pleasure and rebels against the arisen pain. As he is thus engaged in welcoming & rebelling, he is not released from birth, aging, or death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, or despairs. He is not released, I tell you, from suffering & stress.

      Now, gain arises for a well-instructed noble disciple. He reflects, 'Gain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He discerns it as it actually is.

      Loss arises .... Status arises .... Disgrace arises .... Censure arises .... Praise arises .... Pleasure arises .... Pain arises. He reflects, 'Pain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He discerns it as it actually is.

      His mind does not remain consumed with the gain. His mind does not remain consumed with the loss ... with the status ... the disgrace ... the censure ... the praise ... the pleasure. His mind does not remain consumed with the pain.

      He does not welcome the arisen gain, or rebel against the arisen loss. He does not welcome the arisen status, or rebel against the arisen disgrace. He does not welcome the arisen praise, or rebel against the arisen censure. He does not welcome the arisen pleasure, or rebel against the arisen pain.

      As he thus abandons welcoming & rebelling, he is released from birth, aging, & death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs. He is released, I tell you, from suffering & stress. This is the difference, this the distinction, this the distinguishing factor between the well-instructed noble disciple and the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person."

v    AN7.58 Nodding : (i.e. Conceptually understanding this real nature of everything, we should be mindful of not falling into uncontrolled grasping and attachment, blindly following our feelings toward things and beings. Until we reach the liberating personal direct knowledge of all of this, we should use mindfulness and the proper antidotes when we are assailed by those three poisons desire, hate, delusion and all subsequent defilements. We should become fully aware of the relativity of any of our feelings. And we should look at everything as like illusions. This will keeps us from creating more bad karma and more causes for suffering.)

      "There is the case, Moggallana, where a monk has heard, 'All things are unworthy of attachment [or grasping].' Having heard that all things are unworthy of attachment, he fully knows all things. Fully knowing all things, he fully comprehends all things. Fully comprehending all things, then whatever feeling he experiences -- pleasure, pain, neither pleasure nor pain -- he remains focused on inconstancy, focused on dispassion, focused on cessation, focused on relinquishing with regard to that feeling. As he remains focused on inconstancy, focused on dispassion, focused on cessation, focused on relinquishing with regard to that feeling, he is unsustained by (does not cling to) anything in the world. Unsustained, he is not agitated. Unagitated, he is unbound right within. He discerns: 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.' "It is in this respect, Moggallana, that a monk, in brief, is released through the ending of craving, utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, a follower of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate: foremost among human & heavenly beings."

.

Impermanence of all sort of things

v    SN35.204 The Riddle Tree :

      "When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away

    of the six media of sensory contact,

    of the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance,

    of the four great elements [earth, water, wind, & fire],

my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Even the four great elements are dependently arisen, thus empty f inherent existence.)

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, that whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Meaning that since everything is dependently arisen, then everything is empty of inherent existence.) "

.

Impermanence of the five aggregates

v    SN22.90 To Channa :

    "Form, friend Channa, is inconstant [impermanent].

    Feeling is inconstant.

    Perception is inconstant.

    Fabrications are inconstant.

    Consciousness is inconstant.

      Form is not-self. Feeling is not-self. Perception is not-self. Fabrications are not-self. Consciousness is not-self [not the same as the self].

      All fabrications are inconstant. All phenomena are not-self."

v    AN10.60 - To Girimananda : "And what is the perception of inconstancy [or impermanence]? There is the case where a monk -- having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building -- reflects thus:

    'Form is inconstant [impermanent],

    feeling is inconstant,

    perception is inconstant,

    fabrications are inconstant,

    consciousness is inconstant.'

Thus he remains focused on inconstancy with regard to the five aggregates. This, Ananda, is called the perception of inconstancy."

v    In many sutras:

      "Is form constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, my friend."

    "And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?" "Stressful, my friend."

    "And is it proper to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am'?" "No, my friend." [not-self] (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.)

      "Is feeling constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant" ...

      "Is perception constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant" ...

      "Are fabrications constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant"...

      "Is consciousness constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant"

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Impermanence of feelings

v    SN36.9 Impermanent : "The three kinds of feelings, O monks, are

    impermanent,

    compounded, dependently arisen [origination],

    liable to destruction [cessation], to evanescence, to fading away, to cessation

-- namely, pleasant feeling, painful feeling and neutral feeling."

v    DN15 - The Great Causes Discourse :

      "Now, a feeling of pleasure is inconstant, fabricated, dependent on conditions, subject to passing away, dissolution, fading, and cessation.

      A feeling of pain is inconstant, fabricated, dependent on conditions, subject to passing away, dissolution, fading, and cessation.

      A feeling of neither pleasure nor pain is inconstant, fabricated, dependent on conditions, subject to passing away, dissolution, fading, and cessation."

v    SN36.11 Alone : "While three feelings have been taught by me, the pleasant, the painful and the neutral, yet I have also said that whatever is felt is within suffering. This, however, was stated by me with reference to the impermanence of (all) conditioned phenomena (sankhara). I have said it because conditioned phenomena are liable to destruction, to evanescence, to fading away, to cessation and to change. It is with reference to this that I have stated: `Whatever is felt is within suffering.'"

.

Impermanence of the six sense media

v    SN35.99 Concentration :

      "Develop concentration, monks. A concentrated monk discerns things as they actually are present. And what does he discern as it actually is present?

      He discerns, as it actually is present, that

    'The eye is inconstant'...

     'Forms are inconstant'...

     'Eye-consciousness is inconstant'...

     'Eye-contact is inconstant'...

     'Whatever arises in dependence on eye-contact, experienced either as pleasure, as pain, or as neither-pleasure-nor-pain, that too is inconstant.'

      He discerns, as it actually is present, that

    'The ear is inconstant'...

     'The nose is inconstant'...

    'The tongue is inconstant'...

    'The body is inconstant"...

      He discerns, as it actually is present, that

    'The intellect is inconstant'...

     'Ideas are inconstant'...

     'Intellect-consciousness is inconstant'...

     'Intellect-contact is inconstant'...

     'Whatever arises in dependence on intellect-contact, experienced either as pleasure, as pain, or as neither-pleasure-nor-pain, that too is inconstant.'

      So develop concentration, monks. A concentrated monk discerns things as they actually are present."

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Impermanence of concentration states

v    MN121 The Lesser Discourse on Emptiness :

      "He discerns that 'This theme-less concentration of awareness (i.e. cessation of perception and feeling) is fabricated & mentally fashioned.'

      And he discerns that 'Whatever is fabricated & mentally fashioned is inconstant & subject to cessation.'"

v    AN9.44 Released through Discernment :

      "... the first jhana ... And he knows it through discernment (i.e. MN121: fabricated & mentally fashioned, inconstant & subject to cessation). It is to this extent that one is described in a sequential way by the Blessed One as released through discernment (i.e. discernment-release).

      the second jhana ... the third jhana ... the fourth jhana ...

      the sphere of the infinitude of space ...

      the sphere of the infinitude of consciousness ...

      the sphere of nothingness ...

      the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. ...

      Furthermore, with the complete transcending of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, he enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling.

      And as he sees with discernment, the mental fermentations go to their total end. And he knows it through discernment (i.e. MN121: fabricated & mentally fashioned, inconstant & subject to cessation).

      It is to this extent that one is described in a non-sequential way by the Blessed One as released through discernment (i.e. discernment-release)." (i.e. None of the high meditational states are permanent or Nirvana. Nirvana, Total Unbinding, cannot be faked by stopping all mental processes, or by dropping all. It is achieved only by seeing through the real nature of all dharma, including all mental states, even the theme-less concentration of awareness / the cessation of perception and feeling.)

v    MN140 The Exposition of the Properties:

      "One discerns that 'If I were to direct equanimity as pure and bright as this towards the sphere of the infinitude of space and to develop the mind along those lines, that would be fabricated. (i.e. Thus impermanent)

      One discerns that 'If I were to direct equanimity as pure and bright as this towards the sphere of the infinitude of consciousness...

      the sphere of nothingness...

      the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception and to develop the mind along those lines, that would be fabricated.' (i.e. Thus impermanent)

      One neither fabricates nor mentally fashions for the sake of becoming or un-becoming. (i.e. The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting; between existence and non-existence)

      This being the case, one is not sustained by anything in the world (does not cling to anything in the world).

      Unsustained, one is not agitated. Unagitated, one is totally unbound right within.

      One discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.' "

.

Impermanence of views

v    AN10.93 - Views :

      "'As for the venerable one who says, [pick any of the 10 extreme views]. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. This is the sort of view I have," his view arises from his own inappropriate attention or in dependence on the words of another. Now this view has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated.

      'Venerable sirs, whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant.

      Whatever is inconstant is stress.

      Whatever is stress is not me, is not what I am, is not my self.

      Having seen this well with right discernment as it actually is present, I also discern the higher escape from it as it actually is present.'" (i.e. only this is true, anything else is worthless is an affirmation of an absolute. It is thinking that this view, idea, or concept is real, existing in the absolute, inherently existing. It is ignoring the relativity of all truths, their conventional nature, the fact that they are all dependently arisen, impermanent, unsatisfying, empty of inherent existence, )

v    SN22.81 At Palileyyaka :

      "That assumption [view] is a fabrication.

      Now what is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication?

      To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by that which is felt born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that.

      And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen.

      That craving ... That feeling ... That contact ... That ignorance [i.e. the five aggregates are] is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. It is by knowing & seeing in this way that one without delay puts an end to the effluents."

.

Impermanence of the 12 links of dependent origination

v    SN12.20 - Requisite Conditions : "And what are dependently co-arisen phenomena?

      Aging & death are dependently co-arisen phenomena: inconstant [impermanent], compounded, dependently co-arisen [origination], subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation.

      Birth is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Becoming is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Clinging/sustenance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Craving is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Feeling is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Contact is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      The six sense media are dependently co-arisen phenomena....

      Name-&-form is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Consciousness is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Fabrications are dependently co-arisen phenomena....

      Ignorance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon: inconstant, compounded, dependently co-arisen, subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation.

      These are called dependently co-arisen phenomena.

##

In short, everything is impermanence because dependently co-arisen

v    DN16 - The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding : "Enough, friends. Don't grieve. Don't lament. Hasn't the Blessed One already taught the state of growing different with regard to all things dear & appealing, the state of becoming separate, the state of becoming otherwise? What else is there to expect? It's impossible that one could forbid anything born, existent, fabricated, & subject to disintegration from disintegrating."

v    AN56.11 - Setting the Wheel of Dharma in Motion : " there arose to Ven. Kondaa the dustless, stainless Dharma eye: Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation." (i.e. Everything is empty of inherent existence (not existent, falling away) because dependently arisen (not non-existent, arisen); and vice versa.)

v    SN35.204 The Riddle Tree :

      "When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away

    of the six media of sensory contact,

    of the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance,

    of the four great elements [earth, water, wind, & fire],

my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Even the four great elements are dependently arisen, thus empty f inherent existence.)

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, that whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Meaning that since everything is dependently arisen, then everything is empty of inherent existence.) "

v    MN44 - The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers: "Is the noble eightfold path fabricated or unfabricated?" "The noble eightfold path is fabricated." (i.e. The Noble Path is also empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen; no absolute, only adapted skillful means)

##

Ignorance of the impermanence of all dependently arisen things is a cause for suffering removing this ignorance of arising & falling away is liberation

v    Iti3.85 : "... Remain focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications. ... For one who remains focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises."

v    SN22.122: Virtuous Being : "A virtuous monk should attend in an appropriate way to these five aggregates of clinging as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a dissolution, an emptiness, not-self. For it is possible that a virtuous monk, attending in an appropriate way to these five aggregates of clinging as inconstant stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a dissolution, an emptiness, not-self, would realize the fruit of stream-entry. realize the fruit of arhatship "

v    Iti 85: "Remain focused, monks, on the foulness of the body. Have mindfulness of in-and-out breathing well established to the fore within you. Remain focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications. For one who remains focused on the foulness of the body, the latent tendency to passion for the property of beauty is abandoned. For one who has mindfulness of in-and-out breathing well established to the fore within oneself, annoying external thoughts and inclinations don't exist. For one who remains focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications, ignorance is abandoned, and clear knowing arises."

v    [But the real ignorance that has to be removed is not just the impermanence; that is just the beginning see above under the Four Noble Truths]

##

How to deal with resistance to change

v    Iti3.85 : "... Remain focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications. ... For one who remains focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises."

v    SN22.1 - To Nakulapita : "There is the case where a well-instructed noble disciple does not assume form [same for the other aggregates] to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He is not obsessed with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' [He is not obsessed that the five aggregates and himself are the same or different.] So when those five aggregates change he does not fall into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair over their change & alteration. This, householder, is how one is afflicted in body but unafflicted in mind." (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.)

v    SN21.2 About Upatissa : Ven. Sariputta said, "Friends, just now as I was withdrawn in seclusion, this train of thought arose to my awareness: 'Is there anything in the world with whose change or alteration there would arise within me sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair?' Then the thought occurred to me: 'There is nothing in the world with whose change or alteration there would arise within me sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair.'" When this was said, Ven. Ananda said to Ven. Sariputta, "Sariputta my friend, even if there were change & alteration in the Teacher would there arise within you no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair?" "Even if there were change & alteration in the Teacher, my friend, there would arise within me no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair. Still, I would have this thought: 'What a great being, of great might, of great prowess, has disappeared! For if the Blessed One were to remain for a long time, that would be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of sympathy for the world; for the welfare, benefit, & happiness of human & divine beings.'" "Surely," [said Ven. Ananda,] "it's because Ven. Sariputta's I-making & mine-making and obsessions with conceit have long been well uprooted that even if there were change & alteration in the Teacher, there would arise within him no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair."

v    SN22.57 The Seven Bases : "And how is a monk skilled in seven bases? There is the case where a monk discerns form, the origination of form, the cessation of form, the path of practice leading to the cessation of form. He discerns the allure of form, the drawback of form, and the escape from form. "He discerns feeling .... perception .... fabrications .... consciousness ... "And how does a monk have three modes of investigation? There is the case where a monk investigates in terms of properties, investigates in terms of sense spheres, investigates in terms of dependent co-arising. The fact that form is inconstant, stressful, subject to change: that is the drawback of form. (same for the other aggregates)"

v    AN3.51-52 Two People : "This world is swept away by (on fire with) aging, by illness, by death. With the world thus swept away by (on fire with) aging, illness, & death, any restraint of body, speech, & intellect practiced here will be one's shelter, cave, island, & refuge after death in the world beyond."

v    SN22.85 To Yamaka : "Is form constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, my friend." "And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?" "Stressful, my friend." "And is it proper to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am'?" "No, my friend." (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.) "Now, the well-instructed, noble disciple does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He discerns inconstant form, as it actually is present, as 'inconstant form. He discerns stressful form, as it actually is present, as 'stressful form.' He discerns fabricated form, as it actually is present, as 'fabricated form'. He discerns murderous form, as it actually is present, as 'murderous form'. He does not get attached to form, does not cling to form, does not determine it to be 'my self.'  These five aggregates of clinging -- not attached to, not clung to -- lead to his long-term happiness & well-being." "Then, friend Yamaka, how would you answer if you are thus asked: A monk, a worthy one, with no more mental effluents: what is he on the break-up of the body, after death?" "Thus asked, I would answer, 'Form is inconstant ... Feeling ... Perception ... Fabrications ... Consciousness is inconstant. That which is inconstant is stressful. That which is stressful has ceased and gone to its end." "Very good, my friend Yamaka. Very good. "

v    SN36.7 - The Sick Ward : "As a monk is dwelling thus mindful & alert--heedful, ardent, & resolute -- a feeling of pleasure (same for the other types of feelings) arises in him. He discerns that 'A feeling of pleasure has arisen in me. It is dependent on a requisite condition, not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body. Now, this body is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. Being dependent on a body that is inconstant, fabricated, & dependently co-arisen, how can this feeling of pleasure that has arisen be constant?' He remains focused on inconstancy with regard to the body & to the feeling of pleasure. He remains focused on dissolution ... dispassion ... cessation ... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of pleasure. As he remains focused on inconstancy ... dissolution ... dispassion ... cessation ... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of pleasure, he abandons any latent tendency to passion with regard to the body & the feeling of pleasure. Sensing a feeling of pleasure, he discerns that it is inconstant, not grasped at, not relished. Sensing a feeling of pain .... Sensing a feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain, he discerns that it is inconstant, not grasped at, not relished. Sensing a feeling of pleasure, he senses it disjoined from it. Sensing a feeling of pain .... Sensing a feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain, he senses it disjoined from it. When sensing a feeling limited to the body, he discerns that 'I am sensing a feeling limited to the body.' When sensing a feeling limited to life, he discerns that 'I am sensing a feeling limited to life.' He discerns that 'With the break-up of the body, after the termination of life, all that is experienced, not being relished, will grow cold right here.'"

##

The Middle Way about impermanence

v    Prajnaparamita - Mahakasyapa and Mt. Grdhrakuta :

      The venerable Mahakasyapa : "Because all composite dharmas are a product of causes and conditions, they are therefore impermanent."

      Because, formerly non-existent, they now exist, and then pass again into non-existence, they are therefore, impermanent.

      Because they are impermanent they do therefore conduce to suffering. Because they conduce to suffering, they are therefore not self.

      Because they are not self, he who is possessed of wisdom should not become attached to the concepts of 'I' and 'mine.'

      If one becomes attached to 'I' and 'mine,' then one becomes subject to an immeasurable amount of worry, distress, suffering and affliction.

      In all worldly spheres, one should abhor and seek liberation from desires."

v    Prajnaparamita - The Four Siddhaantas (teaching modes) :

      "Moreover, those beings who possess the cognitive inversion (i.e. inverted view) of being attached to [the illusion of] permanence are not aware that dharmas [only] appear to be continuous. For individuals such as these, the contemplation of impermanence is the [appropriate] counteractive siddhaanta dharma. It is not, however, the [siddhaanta] of the supreme meaning. Why [not]? Because all dharmas are devoid of a self-existent nature." (i.e. Impermanence is a good adapted skillful means/view to teach to beginners; but there is no real impermanence since there is no real dharma in the first place. Everything is continually dependent on an infinity of causes and conditions, ever changing, never the same even for the most infinitesimal moment. So nothing really is in the usual sense; so it cannot be impermanent.)

      "It should not be the case that conditioned dharmas possess the three characteristics. Why [not]? Because the three characteristics are not real." (i.e. The three universal characteristics, are just another dependently arisen view, empty of inherent existence, and at best a proper adapted skillful means depending on the circumstances, and should never be grasped upon. The same for dependent origination and emptiness itself. The Buddha has no absolute position, no view, no dogma. The real nature of everything is beyond all description, beyond all conceptualization, beyond simple description like the three universal characteristics, etc.)

v    Prajnaparamita - Birth and Death and the Unmoving Mind :

      "As for your claim that the five aggregates are "empty, impermanent, and devoid of a self," in this Prajnaparamita,

    the five aggregates are devoid of permanence, impermanence,

    emptiness, non-emptiness,

    self and non-self." (i.e. The real nature of everything is beyond all discrimination, all dualities, all conceptualization. But, still, concepts are used as useful skillful means on the path.)

v    Prajnaparamita The Perfection of wisdom :

      "Question: If impermanence is not actually the case, why did the Buddha speak of impermanence?

      Response: The Buddha accorded with what was appropriate for particular beings and so spoke the Dharma for their sakes. (i.e. No absolute, only adapted skillful means. The Middle Way: staying away from any extreme by using its opposite / antidote while not getting attached to it either.)

      It was in order to refute the inverted view which imagines permanence that he spoke of impermanence.

      In the opposite case, because people were unaware of or did not believe in later existences, he spoke of the [permanent] mind going on into a later existence and being reborn in the heavens, explaining that the karmic causes and conditions of offenses and merit are not lost even in a million kalpas.

      These are instances of the counteractive siddhaanta. They do not represent the supreme meaning siddhaanta. The ultimate reality aspect of all dharmas is neither permanent nor impermanent. Then too, the Buddha spoke in place after place of the emptiness of dharmas. In the sphere of the emptiness of dharmas, impermanence [itself] is non-existent. Therefore, to declare that the world is impermanent is an erroneous view. Hence one refers to the emptiness of dharmas. "

Karma

Beings are what they are because of their accumulated karma

v    AN5.57 - Subjects for Contemplation : "I am the owner of my actions (karma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and live dependent on my actions. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir " (i.e. karma, dependent origination, and the interdependence of the world and mind are the same thing. We are our already accumulated karma. This production of this karma is schematized by the samsaric cycle described by the 12 links of dependent origination. We are conditioned by old karma, and produce new karma that will condition our future. Also, the world (name-&-form) and the mind/self (consciousness) are interdependent; one condition the other continuously; one cannot exist without the other. In that sense, our whole world is dependent on our accumulated karma. And there doesnt seem to be a limit to this. Everything is dependent on the mind, on accumulated karma.)

v    MN135 - The Shorter Exposition of Karma : (i.e. the relation between cause & effect)

      "Master Gotama, what is the reason, what is the condition, why inferiority and superiority are met with among human beings, among mankind? For one meets with short-lived and long-lived people, sick and healthy people, ugly and handsome people, insignificant and influential people, poor and rich people, low-born and high-born people, stupid and wise people. What is the reason, what is the condition, why superiority and inferiority are met with among human beings, among mankind?"

      "Beings are owners of karmas, heirs of karmas, they have karmas as their progenitor, karmas as their kin, karmas as their homing-place. It is karmas that differentiate beings according to inferiority and superiority." [see more on the detailed meaning]

    "So, student, the way leading to short life makes people short-lived, the way leading to long life makes people long-lived;

    the way leading to sickliness makes people sickly, the way leading to health makes people healthy;

    the way leading to ugliness makes people ugly, the way leading to beauty makes people beautiful;

    the way leading to lack of influence makes people uninfluential, the way leading to influence makes people influential;

    the way leading to poverty makes people poor, the way leading to wealth makes people wealthy;

    the way leading to low birth makes people low-born, the way leading to high birth makes people highborn;

    the way leading to stupidity makes people stupid, the way leading to discernment makes people discerning."

(i.e. The consequence of karma is always similar to its cause because it is always like a bad habit reinforcing itself, or like suffering the consequence of a bad choice/investment it is necessarily related to the expectation we had about this investment. Creating karma is like that, acting/investing in the hope of some return, and based on this false expectation; that is the ignorance that is the cause of the suffering. Karma is : conditioned conditioning conditioned conditioning And the only way out is to see through the whole process, thus transcending it. And this is done with direct knowledge of the 12 links of dependent origination, of their arising and cessation, or the interdependence of the world and mind, It is not done by artificially accepting or rejecting anything or all.)

v    MN57 - The Dog-duty Ascetic & AN4.235 : (i.e. We are our accumulated conditioning, created by our own choices and actions.)

      "Here, Punna, someone develops the dog duty fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog-habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog mind fully and unstintingly, he develops dog behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of dogs. But if his view is such as this: 'By this virtue or duty or asceticism or religious life I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,' that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Punna, if his dog duty is perfected, it will lead him to the company of dogs; if it is not, it will lead him to hell." ...

      "Here, Seniya, someone develops the ox duty fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox mind fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of oxen. But if his view is such as this: 'By this virtue or duty or asceticism or religious like I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,' that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Seniya, if his ox duty is perfected, it will lead him to the company of oxen; if it is not, it will lead him to hell." (i.e. And someone whose path is to reject everything including all skillful means, to drop all, is going to be reborn as a dumb ass.)

v    AN4.85 - Darkness : (i.e. We can break free from the cycle of bad habits / conditioning.) "There are these four types of people to be found existing in the world:

      And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into a lowly family -- the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper -- a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness.

      And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into a lower class family -- the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper -- a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for light.

      And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family -- a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family -- a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in light who is headed for darkness.

      And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family -- a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family -- a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in light who is headed for light.

##

Karma should be known: a conditioning cycle

v    AN6.63 Penetrative : (i.e. The importance of realizing the Four Noble Truths about karma: nature, origination, cessation, path leading to cessation / transcendence / the Middle Way)

    "'Karma should be known. (nature: intention, choice, action)

    The cause by which karma comes into play should be known. (dependent origination, dependent on previous karma)

    The cessation of karma should be known. (seeing through the karma process)

    The path of practice for the cessation of karma should be known.' (the Middle Way)

    The diversity in karma should be known.

    The result of karma should be known. (the conditioning effect on the production of more karma, the consequences, the rebirths, suffering)

      Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

    Intention, I tell you, is karma. Intending, one does karma by way of body, speech, & intellect.

    And what is the cause by which karma comes into play? Contact is the cause by which karma comes into play. (i.e. And contact is ultimately dependent on already accumulated karma. And the whole process is dependent on the ignorance of the nature of this same process.)

    And what is the diversity in karma? There is karma to be experienced in hell, karma to be experienced in the realm of common animals, karma to be experienced in the realm of the hungry shades, karma to be experienced in the human world, karma to be experienced in the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in karma.

    And what is the result of karma? The result of karma is of three sorts, I tell you: that which arises right here & now, that which arises later [in this lifetime], and that which arises following that. This is called the result of karma.

    And what is the cessation of karma? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of karma;

    and just this noble eightfold path -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration -- is the path of practice leading to the cessation of karma."

v    SN35.145 - Karma(i.e. The two types of karma: old and new) "Monks, I will teach you new & old karma, the cessation of karma, and the path of practice leading to the cessation of karma. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak.

      Now what, monks, is old karma? The eye is to be seen as old karma, fabricated & willed, capable of being felt. The ear ... The nose ... The tongue ... The body ... The intellect is to be seen as old karma, fabricated & willed, capable of being felt. This is called old karma. (i.e. the already accumulated karma, the result of past choices and investments, is built-in into what we have constructed: our body and mind, our tools, our society, our world. And these are continually updated by the addition of new karma.)

      And what is new karma? Whatever karma one does now with the body, with speech, or with the intellect/mind: This is called new karma. And what is the cessation of karma? Whoever touches the release that comes from the cessation of bodily karma, verbal karma, & mental karma: This is called the cessation of karma. And what is the path of practice leading to the cessation of karma? Just this noble eightfold path... "

v    MN57 - The Dog-duty Ascetic & AN4.235 : (i.e. The best kind of karma: building up good habits that will permit ultimately to transcend all habits / karma; by seeing through the whole process. That is what the whole Middle Way path is about.) "Punna, there are four kinds of karma proclaimed by me after realization myself with direct knowledge.

      There is dark karma with dark ripening:

    And what is karma that is dark with dark result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates an injurious bodily fabrication, fabricates an injurious verbal fabrication, fabricates an injurious mental fabrication. Having fabricated an injurious bodily fabrication, having fabricated an injurious verbal fabrication, having fabricated an injurious mental fabrication, he rearises in an injurious world. On rearising in an injurious world, he is there touched by injurious contacts. Touched by injurious contacts, he experiences feelings that are exclusively painful, like those of the beings in hell. This is called karma that is dark with dark result. (i.e. the dark path of self-amplifying bad habits and consequential suffering)

      there is bright karma with bright ripening:

    And what is karma that is bright with bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a non-injurious bodily fabrication ... a non-injurious verbal fabrication ... a non-injurious mental fabrication ... He rearises in a non-injurious world ... There he is touched by non-injurious contacts ... He experiences feelings that are exclusively pleasant, like those of the Ever-radiant Devas. This is called karma that is bright with bright result. (i.e. the white path of self-amplifying good habits and short term happiness)

      there is dark-and-bright karma with dark-and-bright ripening:

    And what is karma that is dark & bright with dark & bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a bodily fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... a verbal fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... a mental fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... He rearises in an injurious & non-injurious world ... There he is touched by injurious & non-injurious contacts ... He experiences injurious & non-injurious feelings, pleasure mingled with pain, like those of human beings, some devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is called karma that is dark & bright with dark & bright result. (i.e. what is good and bad is all relative anyway)

      and there is karma that is not dark and not bright with neither-dark-nor-bright ripening that conduces to the exhaustion of karma:

    And what is karma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of karma? right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called karma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of karma. (i.e. The Middle Way: not aiming for a bad rebirth, not aiming for a good rebirth; aiming for no more rebirth, for total Unbinding, transcendence of all habits/karma. And this is done through the three trainings: morality, concentration, wisdom combining both virtuous adapted skillful means/methods and the gradual development of wisdom.)

v    MN136 - The Great Exposition of Karma : (i.e. see details about the relativity of karma bellow)

      "So, Ananda,

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result);

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result)."

##

Skillful (merit) and unskillful actions of body, speech and mind

v    MN41 - The Brahmins of Sala :

      "So, householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance with the Dharma, by reason of unrighteous conduct, that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell.

      "So, householders, it is by reason of conduct in accordance with the Dharma, by reason of righteous conduct, that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world.

v    AN10.176 - To Cunda the Silversmith : (i.e. The 10 skillful and 10 unskillful actions of body, speech and mind)

      The Blessed One said:

    "There are three ways in which one is made impure by bodily action,

    four ways in which one is made impure by verbal action,

    and three ways in which one is made impure by mental action.

      And how is one made impure in three ways by bodily action?

    There is the case where a certain person takes life, is a hunter, bloody-handed, devoted to killing & slaying, showing no mercy to living beings.

    He takes what is not given. He takes, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them.

    He engages in sensual misconduct. He gets sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dharma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man. This is how one is made impure in three ways by bodily action.

      And how is one made impure in four ways by verbal action?

    There is the case where a certain person engages in false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty [i.e., a royal court proceeding], if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I know.' If he does know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I have seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' Thus he consciously tells lies for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of a certain reward.

    He engages in divisive speech. What he has heard here he tells there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he tells here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus breaking apart those who are united and stirring up strife between those who have broken apart, he loves factionalism, delights in factionalism, enjoys factionalism, speaks things that create factionalism.

    He engages in abusive speech. He speaks words that are harsh, cutting, bitter to others, abusive of others, provoking anger and destroying concentration.

    He engages in idle chatter. He speaks out of season, speaks what isn't factual, what isn't in accordance with the goal, the Dharma, & the Vinaya, words that are not worth treasuring. This is how one is made impure in four ways by verbal action.

      And how is one made impure in three ways by mental action?

    There is the case where a certain person is covetous. He covets the belongings of others, thinking, 'O, that what belongs to others would be mine!'

    He bears ill will, corrupt in the resolves of his heart: 'May these beings be killed or cut apart or crushed or destroyed, or may they not exist at all!'

    He has wrong view, is warped in the way he sees things: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests or contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is how one is made impure in three ways by mental action.

      "These, Cunda, are the ten courses of unskillful action. Furthermore, as a result of being endowed with these ten courses of unskillful action, [rebirth in] hell is declared, [rebirth in] an animal womb is declared, [rebirth in] the realm of hungry shades is declared -- that or any other bad destination.

      "Now, Cunda,

    there are three ways in which one is made pure by bodily action,

    four ways in which one is made pure by verbal action,

    and three ways in which one is made pure by mental action.

      And how is one made pure in three ways by bodily action?

    There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.

    Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them.

    Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dharma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man. This is how one is made pure in three ways by bodily action.

      And how is one made pure in four ways by verbal action?

    There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward.

    Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

    Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.

    Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large. Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dharma, & the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal. This is how one is made pure in four ways by verbal action.

      And how is one made pure in three ways by mental action?

    There is the case where a certain person is not covetous. He does not covet the belongings of others, thinking, 'O, that what belongs to others would be mine!'

    He bears no ill will and is not corrupt in the resolves of his heart. [He thinks,] 'May these beings be free from animosity, free from oppression, free from trouble, and may they look after themselves with ease!'

    He has right view and is not warped in the way he sees things: 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is how one is made pure in three ways by mental action.

      "These, Cunda, are the ten courses of skillful action. ... Furthermore, as a result of being endowed with these ten courses of skillful action, [rebirth among] the devas is declared, [rebirth among] human beings is declared -- that or any other good destination."

v    AN8.40 Results : (i.e. Unskillful actions) "Monks,

      the taking of life -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from the taking of life is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to a short life span.

      Stealing -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from stealing is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to the loss of one's wealth.

      Illicit sexual behavior -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from illicit sexual behavior is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to rivalry & revenge.

      Telling falsehoods -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from telling falsehoods is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to being falsely accused.

      Divisive tale-bearing -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from divisive tale-bearing is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to the breaking of one's friendships.

      Harsh speech -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from harsh speech is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to unappealing sounds.

      Frivolous chattering -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from frivolous chattering is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to words that aren't worth taking to heart.

      The drinking of fermented & distilled liquors -- when indulged in, developed, & pursued -- is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from drinking fermented & distilled liquors is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to mental derangement."

v    SN3.4:

      "That's the way it is, great king! That's the way it is! Those who engage in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct are not dear to themselves. Even though they may say, `We are dear to ourselves,' still they aren't dear to themselves. Why is that? Of their own accord, they act toward themselves as an enemy would act toward an enemy; thus they aren't dear to themselves.

      But those who engage in good bodily conduct, good verbal misconduct, & good mental conduct are dear to themselves. Even though they may say, `We aren't dear to ourselves,' still they are dear to themselves. Why is that? Of their own accord, they act toward themselves as a dear one would act toward a dear one; thus they are dear to themselves."

      So do what is admirable, as an accumulation for the future life. Deeds of merit are the support for beings when they arise in the other world."

v    SN3.5:

      "That's the way it is, great king! That's the way it is! Those who engage in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct leave themselves unprotected. ...

      But those who engage in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct have themselves protected. Even though nor a squadron of infantry troops might protect them, still they have themselves protected. Why is that? Because that's an internal protection, not an external one. Therefore they have themselves protected."

v    MN19 - Two Sorts of Thinking : (i.e. seeing through bad habits/karma, and developing good habits / conditioning) "Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking & pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with sensuality, abandoning thinking imbued with renunciation, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with sensuality.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with ill will, abandoning thinking imbued with non-ill will, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with ill will.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with harmfulness, abandoning thinking imbued with harmlessness, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with harmfulness. ...

      Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking & pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with renunciation, abandoning thinking imbued with sensuality, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with renunciation.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with non-ill will, abandoning thinking imbued with ill will, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with non-ill will.

      If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with harmlessness, abandoning thinking imbued with harmfulness, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with harmlessness."

      ...

      When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the passing away & reappearance of beings. I saw -- by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human -- beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their karma: 'These beings -- who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech & mind, who reviled the Noble Ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views -- with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings -- who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the Noble Ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views -- with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus -- by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human -- I saw beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their karma. This was the second knowledge I attained in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose -- as happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute.

##

Obstructions of already accumulated conditioning to be abandoned gross mistakes, too far from the reality of arising & falling away

[The many words for "obstructions": unskillfulness, unwholesomeness, foolishness, unwholesome actions of the body speech & mind, conditioning, poisons, intoxication, already accumulated karma, obsessions, illusions, defilements, hindrances, cankers, fermentations, taints, fetters, effluents,]

v    AN2.19 Skillful :

      'Abandon what is unskillful.'

      'Develop what is skillful.'

v    SN4.20 Rulership : The entirety of a mountain of gold, of solid bullion: even twice that wouldn't suffice for one person. Knowing this, live evenly, in tune with the contemplative life.

v    AN5.129 - In Agony & AN6.87 - Karma Obstructions : (i.e. Five very unskillful actions) "There are these five inhabitants of the states of deprivation, inhabitants of hell, who are in agony & incurable. Which five?

      One who has killed his/her mother,

      one who has killed his/her father,

      one who has killed an arahant,

      one who -- with a corrupted mind -- has caused the blood of a Tathagata to flow,

      and one who has caused a split in the Sangha.

These are the five inhabitants of the states of deprivation, inhabitants of hell, who are in agony & incurable."

v    AN9.63 - Things That Weaken the Training : "Monks, these five are things that weaken the training. Which five?

      The taking of life,

      stealing,

      sexual misconduct,

      the telling of lies,

      and distilled & fermented beverages that are a cause for heedlessness."

v    AN6.86 - Obstructions : (i.e. The influence of the already accumulated conditioning/karma on the possibility of progression on the path)

      "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is incapable of alighting on the lawfulness, the rightness of skillful mental qualities even when listening to the true Dharma. Which six?

    He is endowed with a (present) karma obstruction,

    a defilement obstruction,

    a result-of-(past)-karma obstruction;

    he lacks conviction,

    has no desire (to listen),

    and has dull discernment.

      Endowed with these six qualities, a person is capable of alighting on the lawfulness, the rightness of skillful mental qualities even while listening to the true Dharma. Which six?

    He is not endowed with a (present) karma obstruction,

    a defilement obstruction,

    or a result-of-(past)-karma obstruction;

    he has conviction,

    has the desire (to listen),

    and is discerning."

v    MN7 - The Simile of the Cloth : "And what, monks, are the defilements of the mind?

      Covetousness and unrighteous greed are a defilement of the mind;

      ill will is a defilement of the mind;

      anger is a defilement of the mind;

      hostility... denigration... domineering... envy... jealousy...

      hypocrisy... fraud... obstinacy... presumption... conceit...

      arrogance... vanity...

      negligence is a defilement of the mind."

v    Iti 28 : "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in stress in the present life -- troubled, distressed, & feverish -- and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected. Which two?

      A lack of guarding of the doors of the sense faculties,

      and knowing no moderation in food."

v    SN3.36: "That's the way it is, great king! That's the way it is! Few are those people in the world who, when acquiring lavish wealth, don't become intoxicated & heedless, don't become greedy for sensual pleasures, and don't mistreat other beings. Many more are those who, when acquiring lavish wealth, become intoxicated & heedless, become greedy for sensual pleasures, and mistreat other beings."

v    AN3.38: three forms of intoxication. Intoxication with youth, intoxication with health, intoxication with life

v    AN7.11 Obsessions (1) : "Monks, there are these seven obsessions. The obsession of sensual passion. The obsession of resistance. The obsession of views. The obsession of uncertainty. The obsession of conceit. The obsession of passion for becoming. The obsession of ignorance."

v    AN7.12 Obsessions (2) : "When, for a monk, the obsession of sensual passion has been abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising; when, for him, the obsession of resistance... the obsession of views... the obsession of uncertainty... the obsession of conceit... the obsession of passion for becoming... the obsession of ignorance has been abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising: this is called a monk who has cut through craving, has turned away from the fetter, and -- by rightly breaking through conceit -- has put an end to suffering & stress."

v    SN4.8: "Those with children grieve because of their children. Those with cattle grieve because of their cows. A person's grief comes from acquisitions, since a person with no acquisitions doesn't grieve."

v    SN17.5 & 8: "Monks, gains, tribute, & fame are a cruel thing, a harsh, bitter obstacle to the attainment of the unexcelled rest from bondage "In the same way there is the case where a certain monk is conquered by gains, offerings, & fame, his mind consumed. He finds no pleasure whether he goes to an empty dwelling, to the foot of a tree, or to the open air. Wherever he goes, wherever he stands, wherever he sits, wherever he lies down, he is sunk in misery. That's how cruel gains, offerings, & fame are: a harsh, bitter obstacle to the attainment of the unexcelled rest from bondage. Thus you should train yourselves: `We will put aside any gains, tribute, & fame that have arisen; and we will not let any gains, tribute, & fame that have arisen keep our minds consumed.'

v    AN8.6:

      "Gain arises for an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person. He does not reflect, 'Gain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He does not discern it as it actually is.

      "Loss arises ....

      Status arises ....

      Disgrace arises ....

      Censure arises ....

      Praise arises ....

      Pleasure arises ....

      "Pain arises. He does not reflect, 'Pain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change.' He does not discern it as it actually is.

      "His mind remains consumed with the gain. His mind remains consumed with the loss ... with the status ... the disgrace ... the censure ... the praise ... the pleasure. His mind remains consumed with the pain.

      "He welcomes the arisen gain and rebels against the arisen loss. He welcomes the arisen status and rebels against the arisen disgrace. He welcomes the arisen praise and rebels against the arisen censure. He welcomes the arisen pleasure and rebels against the arisen pain. As he is thus engaged in welcoming & rebelling, he is not released from birth, aging, or death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, or despairs. He is not released, I tell you, from suffering & stress.")

v    SN12.25 - To Bhumija  :

    "When there is a [the sense of] body, pleasure & pain arise internally with bodily intention as the cause;

    or when there is [the sense of] speech, pleasure & pain arise internally with verbal intention as the cause;

    or when there is [the sense of] intellect / mind, pleasure & pain arise internally with intellectual intention as the cause.

      From ignorance as requisite condition, then either of one's own accord one fabricates bodily fabrication on account of which that pleasure & pain arise internally, or because of others one fabricates bodily fabrication on account of which that pleasure & pain arise internally.

    Either alert one fabricates bodily fabrication on account of which that pleasure & pain arise internally,

    or unalert one fabricates bodily fabrication on account of which that pleasure & pain arise internally."

      [Similarly with verbal & intellectual fabrications.]

.

The need to abandon the fetters

v    AN10.13 Fetters : "There are these ten fetters. Which ten? Five lower fetters & five higher fetters.

      And which are the five lower fetters?

    Self-identity views, uncertainty, grasping at precepts & practices, sensual desire, & ill will. These are the five lower fetters.

      And which are the five higher fetters?

    Passion for form, passion for what is formless, conceit, restlessness, & ignorance.

      These are the five higher fetters. And these are the ten fetters."

v    UD7.3 - Attached to Sensual Pleasures : "Clinging to sensuality, to sensual ties, seeing no blame in the fetter, never will those tied up in the fetter cross over the flood so great & wide."

v    Iti.15 - "Monks, I don't envision even one other fetter -- fettered by which beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time -- like the fetter of craving. Fettered with the fetter of craving, beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time."

v    AN35.191 To Kotthita : "Now tell me, friend Sariputta,

      is the eye the fetter of forms, or are forms the fetter of the eye?

      Is the ear .... Is the nose ....

      Is the tongue .... Is the body ....

      Is the intellect the fetter of ideas, or are ideas the fetter of the intellect?"

"No, my friend.

      The eye is not the fetter of forms, nor are forms the fetter of the eye. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there.

      The ear is not the fetter of sounds ....

      The nose is not the fetter of aromas ....

      The tongue is not the fetter of flavors ....

      The body is not the fetter of tactile sensations ....

      The intellect is not the fetter of ideas, nor are ideas the fetter of the intellect. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there.

v    SN35.63 Chachakka Sutra The Six Sextets :

      Now, there are forms cognizable via the eye -- agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing --

    and a monk does not relish them, welcome them, or remain fastened to them.

    As he doesn't relish them, welcome them, or remain fastened to them, delight ceases.

    There being no delight, he is not impassioned.

    Being not impassioned, he is not fettered.

    A monk disjoined from the fetter of delight is said to be a person living alone.

      "There are sounds cognizable via the ear ...

      aromas cognizable via the nose ...

      flavors cognizable via the tongue ...

      tactile sensations cognizable via the body ...

      ideas cognizable via the intellect -- agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing --

    and a monk does not relish them, welcome them, or remain fastened to them.

    As he doesn't relish them, welcome them, or remain fastened to them, delight ceases.

    There being no delight, he is not impassioned. Being not impassioned, he is not fettered.

    A monk disjoined from the fetter of delight is said to be a person living alone.

      "A person living in this way -- even if he lives near a village, associating with monks & nuns, with male & female lay followers, with king & royal ministers, with sectarians & their disciples -- is still said to be living alone. A person living alone is said to be a monk. Why is that? Because craving is his companion, and it has been abandoned by him. Thus he is said to be a person living alone.".

v    SN22.95 Foam :

"Form is like a glob of foam;
feeling, a bubble;
perception, a mirage;
fabrications, a banana tree;
consciousness, a magic trick --
this has been taught  by the Kinsman of the Sun.
However you observe them, appropriately examine them,
they're empty, void

to whoever sees them  appropriately.

Beginning with the body as taught by the One with profound discernment: when abandoned by three things  -- life, warmth, & consciousness -- form is rejected, cast aside.
When bereft of these it lies thrown away, senseless, a meal for others.
That's the way it goes: it's a magic trick, an idiot's babbling.
It's said to be a murderer. [see SN 22.85]
No substance here is found.

Thus a monk, persistence aroused, should view the aggregates
by day & by night, mindful, alert;
should discard all fetters;
should make himself his own refuge;
should live as if
his head were on fire -- in hopes of the state with no falling away."

v    MN72 To Vacchagotta on Fire : "'Vaccha, the position that "the cosmos is eternal" is a thicket of views, a wilderness of views, a contortion of views, a writhing of views, a fetter of views. It is accompanied by suffering, distress, despair, & fever, and it does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation; to calm, direct knowledge, full awakening, Unbinding." [the same for all other extreme views]

v    AN22.99 - The Leash : "Monks, from an inconstruable beginning comes transmigration. A beginning point is not evident, although beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving are transmigrating & wandering on.  ... for beings -- as long as they are hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving, transmigrating & wandering on -- I don't say that there is an end of suffering & stress"

v    [See also SN22.55 on the breaking of the five lower fetters, and of the ten higher fetters]

.

The need to abandon the five hindrances, and develop concentration, before being able to have insights into reality

v    AN5.51 Obstacles :

      "These five are obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment. Which five?

    "Sensual desire is an obstacle, a hindrance that overwhelms awareness and weakens discernment.

    Ill will...

    Sloth & drowsiness...

    Restlessness & anxiety...

    Uncertainty is an obstacle, a hindrance that overwhelms awareness and weakens discernment.

      These are the five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment.

      And when a monk has not abandoned these five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment, when he is without strength and weak in discernment: for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what is for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a truly noble distinction in knowledge & vision: that is impossible.

      Now, when a monk has abandoned these five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment, when he is strong in discernment: for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what is for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a truly noble distinction in knowledge & vision: that is possible.

      (i.e. They are called "hindrances" because they hinder and envelop the mind in many ways, obstructing its development. -- Nyanaponika Thera)

v    AN4.61 :

      "One whose heart is overwhelmed by unrestrained covetousness will do what he should not do and neglect what he ought to do. And through that, his good name and his happiness will come to ruin.

      One whose heart is overwhelmed by ill-will...

      by sloth and torpor...

      by restlessness and remorse...

      by sceptical doubt will do what he should not do and neglect what he ought to do. And through that, his good name and his happiness will come to ruin.

      But if a noble disciple has seen these five as defilements of the mind, he will give them up. And doing so, he is regarded as one of great wisdom, of abundant wisdom, clear-visioned, well endowed with wisdom. This is called "endowment with wisdom." "

v    AN5.23:

      "There are five impurities of gold impaired by which it is not pliant and wieldy, lacks radiance, is brittle and cannot be wrought well. What are these five impurities? Iron, copper, tin, lead and silver. But if the gold has been freed from these five impurities, then it will be plaint and wieldy, radiant and firm, and can be wrought well. Whatever ornaments one wishes to make from it, be it a diadem, earrings, a necklace or a golden chain, it will serve that purpose.

      Similarly, there are five impurities of the mind impaired by which the mind is not pliant and wieldy, lacks radiant lucidity and firmness, and cannot concentrate well upon the eradication of the taints (asava). What are these five impurities? They are: sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and sceptical doubt. (i.e. the five hindrances)

      But if the mind is freed of these five impurities, it will be pliant and wieldy, will have radiant lucidity and firmness, and will concentrate well upon the eradication of the taints. Whatever state realizable by the higher mental faculties one may direct the mind to, one will in each case acquire the capacity of realization, if the (other) conditions are fulfilled. "

v    SN46.2 : "Just as, monks, this body lives on nourishment, lives dependent on nourishment, does not live without nourishment -- in the same way, monks, the five hindrances live on nourishment, depend on nourishment, do not live without nourishment."

v    SN46.51 - Food : "Monks, I will teach you the feeding & starving of the five hindrances ...

      And what is the food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen? There is the theme of beauty. To foster inappropriate attention to it: This is the food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen.

      And what is the food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen? There is the theme of resistance. To foster inappropriate attention to it: This is the food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen.

      And what is the food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen? There are boredom, weariness, yawning, drowsiness after a meal, & sluggishness of awareness. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen.

      And what is the food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen? There is non-stillness of awareness. To foster inappropriate attention to that: This is the food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen.

      And what is the food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen? There are phenomena that act as a foothold for uncertainty. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen.

     

      Now, what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen? There is the theme of unattractiveness. To foster appropriate attention to it: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen.

      And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen? There is the release of the mind [through good will, compassion, appreciation, or equanimity]. To foster appropriate attention to that: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen.

      And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen? There is the potential for effort, the potential for exertion, the potential for striving. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen.

      And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen? There is stillness of awareness. To foster appropriate attention to that: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen.

      And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that are skillful & unskillful, blameworthy & blameless, gross & refined, siding with darkness & with light. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen.

v    AN10.51 - One's Own Mind :

      "Even if a monk is not skilled in the ways of the minds of others (not skilled in reading the minds of others), he should train himself: 'I will be skilled in reading my own mind.'

      ... In the same way, a monk's self-examination is very productive in terms of skillful qualities [if he conducts it in this way]: 'Do I usually remain covetous or not? With thoughts of ill will or not? Overcome by sloth & drowsiness or not? Restless or not? Uncertain or gone beyond uncertainty? Angry or not? With soiled thoughts or unsoiled thoughts? With my body aroused or unaroused? Lazy or with persistence aroused? Unconcentrated or concentrated?'

      If, on examination, a monk knows, 'I usually remain covetous, with thoughts of ill will, overcome by sloth & drowsiness, restless, uncertain, angry, with soiled thoughts, with my body aroused, lazy, or unconcentrated,' then he should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandoning of those very same evil, unskillful qualities. Just as when a person whose turban or head was on fire would put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness to put out the fire on his turban or head; in the same way, the monk should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandoning of those very same evil, unskillful qualities.

      But if, on examination, a monk knows, 'I usually remain uncovetous, without thoughts of ill will, free of sloth & drowsiness, not restless, gone beyond uncertainty, not angry, with unsoiled thoughts, with my body unaroused, with persistence aroused, & concentrated,' then his duty is to make an effort in establishing ('tuning') those very same skillful qualities to a higher degree for the ending of the effluents."

v    MN20 - The Relaxation of Thoughts: The Blessed One said: "When a monk is intent on the heightened mind, there are five themes he should attend to at the appropriate times. Which five?

      "There is the case where evil, unskillful thoughts -- connected with desire, aversion, or delusion -- arise in a monk while he is referring to and attending to a particular theme. He should attend to another theme, apart from that one, connected with what is skillful.

      "If evil, unskillful thoughts -- connected with desire, aversion, or delusion -- still arise in the monk while he is attending to this other theme, connected with what is skillful, he should scrutinize the drawbacks of those thoughts: 'Truly, these thoughts of mine are unskillful, these thoughts of mine are blameworthy, these thoughts of mine result in stress.'

      "If evil, unskillful thoughts -- connected with desire, aversion or delusion -- still arise in the monk while he is scrutinizing the drawbacks of those thoughts, he should pay no mind and pay no attention to those thoughts.

      "If evil, unskillful thoughts -- connected with desire, aversion or delusion -- still arise in the monk while he is paying no mind and paying no attention to those thoughts, he should attend to the relaxing of thought-fabrication with regard to those thoughts.

      "If evil, unskillful thoughts -- connected with desire, aversion or delusion -- still arise in the monk while he is attending to the relaxing of thought-fabrication with regard to those thoughts, then -- with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth -- he should beat down, constrain, and crush his mind with his awareness.

      "Now when a monk ...: He is then called a monk with mastery over the ways of thought sequences. He thinks whatever thought he wants to, and doesn't think whatever thought he doesn't. He has severed craving, thrown off the fetters, and -- through the right penetration of conceit -- has made an end of suffering and stress."

v    [See the sutras about how to abandon laziness and on effort: AN7.58, AN8.80, Iti34, MN95, SN2.10, AN8.30, AN5.53 ]

v    AN9.64 - Hindrances [& concentration] :

      "Monks, there are these five hindrances. Which five?

     The hindrance of sensual desire,

     the hindrance of ill will,

     the hindrance of sloth & drowsiness,

     the hindrance of restlessness & anxiety, and

     the hindrance of uncertainty.

      To abandon these five hindrances, one should develop the four frames of reference. Which four?

    There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves ...

    mind in & of itself ...

    mental qualities in & of themselves -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. To abandon the five hindrances, one should develop these four frames of reference."

v    MN10 : "How does a monk practice mind-object contemplation on the mental objects of the five hindrances?

      Herein, monks, when sensual desire is present in him the monk knows, "There is sensual desire in me," or when sensual desire is absent he knows, "There is no sensual desire in me." He knows how the arising of non-arisen sensual desire comes to be; he knows how the rejection [the falling away] of the arisen sensual desire comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the rejected sensual desire comes to be.

      When ill-will is present in him, the monk knows, "There is ill-will in me," or when ill-will is absent he knows, "There is no ill-will in me." He knows how the arising of non-arisen ill-will comes to be; he knows how the rejection [the falling away]of the arisen ill-will comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the rejected ill-will comes to be.

      When sloth and torpor are present in him, the monk knows, "There is sloth and torpor in me," or when sloth and torpor are absent he knows, "There is no sloth and torpor in me." He knows how the arising of non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he knows how the rejection [the falling away]of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the rejected sloth and torpor comes to be.

      When restlessness and remorse are present in him, the monk knows, "There are restlessness and remorse in me," or when agitation and remorse are absent he knows, "There are no restlessness and remorse in me." He knows how the arising of non-arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; he knows how the rejection [the falling away]of the arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the rejected restlessness and remorse comes to be.

      When sceptical doubt is present in him, the monk knows, "There is sceptical doubt in me," or when sceptical doubt is absent he knows, "There is no sceptical doubt in me." He knows how the arising of non-arisen sceptical doubt comes to be; he knows how the rejection [the falling away]of the arisen sceptical doubt comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the rejected sceptical doubt comes to be. "

v    [See all the sutras about the development of the first jhana by the abandonment of the five hindrances; and on the four frames of reference ]

v    SN36.11 Alone :

      "And I have also taught the step-by-step cessation of fabrications. When one has attained the first jhana, speech has ceased. ... When one has attained the cessation of perception & feeling, perception & feeling have ceased have been stilled has been calmed.

      When a monk's effluents have ended, passion has ceased, aversion has ceased, delusion has ceased have been stilled has been calmed.

v    AN5.28 The Factors of Concentration: "Now what, monks, is five-factored noble right concentration? There is the case where a monk -- quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities -- enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal."

v    SN35.99 - Concentration : "Develop concentration, monks. A concentrated monk discerns things as they actually are present."

v    SN4.41 - Concentration : "And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents? There is the case where a monk remains focused on arising & falling away with reference to the five clinging-aggregates: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is feeling, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is perception, such its origination, such its passing away. Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their passing away. Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.' This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents."

v    AN4.94 - Concentration : "As for the individual who has attained both internal tranquility of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, his duty is to make an effort in establishing ('tuning') those very same skillful qualities to a higher degree for the ending of the (mental) fermentations. "

.

The need to abandon desire

v    SN1.69 - Desire :

      With desire the world is tied down.
With the subduing of desire it's freed.
With the abandoning of desire all bonds are cut through.

v    SN42.11 - To Gandhabhaka :

      "Thus, headman, by this line of reasoning it may be realized how stress, when arising, arises: All of it has desire as its root, has desire as its cause -- for desire is the cause of stress."

v    SN27 - Upakkilesa Samyutta  : "Monks, any desire & passion with regard

    to the eye ear... nose... tongue... body... intellect ...

    to forms ... sounds... aromas... flavors... tactile sensations... ideas...

    to eye-consciousness ... ear-consciousness... nose-consciousness... tongue-consciousness... body-consciousness... intellect-consciousness...

    to contact at the eye ... contact at the ear... contact at the nose... contact at the tongue... contact at the body... contact at the intellect ...

    to feeling born of contact at the eye ... to feeling born of contact at the ear... feeling born of contact at the nose... feeling born of contact at the tongue... feeling born of contact at the body... feeling born of contact at the intellect ...

    to perception (naming, labeling) of forms ... perception of sounds... perception of aromas... perception of flavors... perception of tactile sensations... perception of ideas ...

    to intentions involving forms ... intentions involving sounds... intentions involving aromas... intentions involving flavors... intentions involving tactile sensations... intentions involving ideas ...

    to craving for forms ... craving for sounds... craving for aromas... craving for flavors... craving for tactile sensations... craving for ideas ...

    to the earth property ... liquid property... fire property... wind property... space property... consciousness property ...

    to form... feeling perception... fabrications... consciousness ...

      is a defilement of the mind.

      When, with regard to these six bases, the defilements of awareness are abandoned, then the mind is inclined to renunciation. The mind fostered by renunciation feels malleable for the direct knowing of those qualities worth realizing."

v    From SN35.115: Maras Power:

      There are forms, monks, cognizable via the eye--agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. If a monk relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them, he is said to be a monk fettered by forms cognizable by the eye. He has gone over to Mara's camp; he has come under Mara's power. The Evil One can do with him as he will.

      There are sounds cognizable via the ear ....

      There are aromas cognizable via the nose ....

      There are flavors cognizable via the tongue ....

      There are tactile sensations cognizable via the body ....

      There are ideas cognizable via the intellect--agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. If a monk relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them, he is said to be a monk fettered by forms cognizable by the intellect. He has gone over to Mara's camp; he has come under Mara's power. The Evil One can do with him as he will.

      Now, there are forms cognizable via the eye--agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. If a monk does not relish them, welcome them, or remain fastened to them, he is said to be a monk freed from forms cognizable by the eye. He has not gone over to Mara's camp; he has not come under Mara's power. The Evil One cannot do with him as he will.

      There are sounds cognizable via the ear ....

      There are aromas cognizable via the nose ....

      There are flavors cognizable via the tongue ....

      There are tactile sensations cognizable via the body ....

      There are ideas cognizable via the intellect

.

The need to gradually purify our body, speech and mind before we can develop insights into reality

v    MN61 - Advice to Rahula at Amballatthika : "Rahula, all those priests and contemplatives in the course of the past (same for future and present) who purified their bodily acts, verbal acts, and mental acts, did it through repeated reflection on their bodily acts, verbal acts, and mental acts in just this way.

      Therefore, Rahula, you should train yourself:

      'I will purify my bodily acts through repeated reflection.

      I will purify my verbal acts through repeated reflection.

      I will purify my mental acts through repeated reflection.'

      Thus you should train yourself."

v    AN3.100 The Dirt-washer :

      "there are these gross impurities in a monk intent on heightened mind:

    misconduct in body, speech, & mind. These the monk -- aware & able by nature -- abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence.

      When he is rid of them, there remain in him the moderate impurities:

    thoughts of sensuality, ill will, & harmfulness.

    These he abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence.

      When he is rid of them there remain in him the fine impurities:

    thoughts of his caste, thoughts of his home district, thoughts related to not wanting to be despised.

    These he abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence.

      When he is rid of them, there remain only thoughts of the Dharma. His concentration is neither calm nor refined, it has not yet attained serenity or unity, and is kept in place by the fabrication of forceful restraint.

      But there comes a time when his mind grows steady inwardly, settles down, grows unified & concentrated. His concentration is calm & refined, has attained serenity & unity, and is no longer kept in place by the fabrication of forceful restraint.

      And then whichever of the higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening. "

v    AN3.2: Characterized (by Action):

    "Monks, a fool is characterized by his/her actions.

    A wise person is characterized by his/her actions.

    It is through the activities of one's life that one's discernment shines.

      A person endowed with three things is to be recognized as a fool. Which three? Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. A person endowed with these three things is to be recognized as a fool.

      A person endowed with three things is to be recognized as a wise person. Which three? Good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct. A person endowed with these three things is to be recognized as a wise person.

      Thus, monks, you should train yourselves: `We will avoid the three things that, endowed with which, one is to be recognized as a fool. We will undertake & maintain the three things that, endowed with which, one is to be recognized as a wise person.' That's how you should train yourselves."

v    Dharmapada 277-279 :

      "When you see with discernment, 'All fabrications are inconstant' -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity.

      When you see with discernment, 'All fabrications are stressful' -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity.

      When you see with discernment, 'All phenomena are not-self' -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity." (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.)

.

The need to abandon the three poisons desire, hate, delusion

v    Iti.50: "There are these three roots of what is unskillful. Which three? Greed as a root of what is unskillful, aversion as a root of what is unskillful, delusion as a root of what is unskillful. These are the three roots of what is unskillful."

v    Iti.93 : "Monks, there are these three fires. Which three? The fire of passion, the fire of aversion, the fire of delusion. These, monks, are the three fires."

v    SN3.23 - Qualities of the World : "Three qualities of the world, great king, when arising, arise for harm, stress, & discomfort. Which three?

      Greed, great king, is a quality of the world that, when arising, arises for harm, stress, & discomfort.

      Aversion. great king, is a quality of the world that, when arising, arises for harm, stress, & discomfort.

      Delusion is a quality of the world that, when arising, arises for harm, stress, & discomfort.

These are the three qualities of the world, great king, that when arising, arise for harm, stress, & discomfort."

v    AN3.126 - Putrid :

      "Greed, monk, is putrefaction.

      Ill will is the stench of carrion.

      Evil, unskillful thoughts are flies.

On one who lets himself putrefy & stink with the stench of carrion, there's no way that flies won't swarm & attack. "

v    Iti.88 : "There are these three inside stains, inside enemies, inside foes, inside murderers, inside adversaries. Which three?

      Greed is an inside stain, inside enemy, inside foe, inside murderer, inside adversary.

      Aversion is an inside stain, inside enemy, inside foe, inside murderer, inside adversary.

      Delusion is an inside stain, inside enemy, inside foe, inside murderer, inside adversary.

These are the three inside stains, inside enemies, inside foes, inside murderers, inside adversaries."

Greed causes harm.

Greed provokes the mind.
People don't realize it as a danger born from within.
A person, when greedy, doesn't know his own welfare; when greedy, doesn't see Dharma.
Overcome with greed, he's in the dark, blind.
But when one, abandoning greed, feels no greed for what would merit greed, greed gets shed from him -- like a drop of water off a lotus leaf.

Aversion causes harm.

Aversion provokes the mind.
People don't realize it as a danger born from within.
A person, when aversive, doesn't know his own welfare; when aversive, doesn't see Dharma.
Overcome with aversion he's in the dark, blind.
But when one, abandoning aversion, feels no aversion for what would merit aversion, aversion drops away from him -- like a palm leaf from its stem.

Delusion causes harm.

Delusion provokes the mind.
People don't realize it as a danger born from within.
A person, when deluded, doesn't know his own welfare; when deluded, doesn't see Dharma.
Overcome with delusion he's in the dark, blind.
But when one, abandoning delusion, feels no delusion for what would merit delusion, he disperses all delusion -- as the rising of the sun, the dark.

v    AN3.71:  To Channa the Wanderer: (i.e. All unwholesomeness, all trouble, are based on the three poisons: desire, hate, delusion. All of this because of the ignorance of the arising and falling away of all dharma.)

      "But, friend Ananda, seeing what drawbacks in passion ... in aversion in delusion do you advocate the abandoning of delusion?"

      "A person impassioned,

    his mind bound up, overcome with passion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences mental stress & sorrow. But having abandoned passion, he doesn't will for his own detriment, doesn't will for the detriment of others, doesn't will for the detriment of both. He doesn't experience mental stress or sorrow.

    "A person impassioned, his mind bound up, overcome with passion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned passion, he doesn't engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or in mental misconduct.

    "A person impassioned, his mind bound up, overcome with passion, doesn't discern, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. But having abandoned passion, he discerns, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both.

    "Passion, my friend, makes you blind, makes you sightless, makes you ignorant. It brings about the cessation of discernment, is conducive to trouble, and does not lead to Unbinding.

      "An aversive person,

    his mind bound up, overcome with aversion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences mental stress & sorrow. But having abandoned aversion, he doesn't will for his own detriment, doesn't will for the detriment of others, doesn't will for the detriment of both. He doesn't experience mental stress or sorrow.

    "An aversive person, his mind bound up, overcome with aversion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned aversion, he doesn't engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or in mental misconduct.

    "An aversive person, his mind bound up, overcome with aversion, doesn't discern, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. But having abandoned aversion, he discerns, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both.

    "Aversion, my friend, makes you blind, makes you sightless, makes you ignorant. It brings about the cessation of discernment, is conducive to trouble, and does not lead to Unbinding.

      "A deluded person,

    his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences mental stress & sorrow. But having abandoned delusion, he doesn't will for his own detriment, doesn't will for the detriment of others, doesn't will for the detriment of both. He doesn't experience mental stress or sorrow.

    "A deluded person, his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned delusion, he doesn't engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or in mental misconduct.

    "A deluded person, his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, doesn't discern, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. But having abandoned delusion, he discerns, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both.

    "Delusion, my friend, makes you blind, makes you sightless, makes you ignorant. It brings about the cessation of discernment, is conducive to trouble, and does not lead to Unbinding.

    "Seeing these drawbacks in passion in aversion in delusion we advocate the abandoning of passion aversion delusion."

      "But is there, my friend, a path, is there a way to the abandoning of that passion, aversion, & delusion?" (i.e. The abandonment cannot be faked by artificially dropping them. It has to be done by cultivating true wisdom (understanding and personal direct knowledge) using the Middle Way: the Noble Eightfold Path, the Union of samatha and vipassana)

    "Yes, my friend, there is a path, there is a way to the abandoning of that passion, aversion, & delusion."

    "And what is that path, my friend, what is that way to the abandoning of that passion, aversion, & delusion?"

    "Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the path, this is the way to the abandoning of that passion, aversion, & delusion."

v    AN3.33 Causes : (i.e. Any choice / action / investment base on greed/craving, aversion/hate, or delusion/ignorance will necessarily lead to disappointment and bad consequence /suffering because they are all not in accord with reality. It is only normal that mistakes lead to their consequences. On the other hand, if one abandons those three poisons, then the causes of any more unwholesome actions is also abandoned, and so their unwanted consequences.)

      "Monks, these three are causes for the origination of actions. Which three?

     Greed is a cause for the origination of actions.

     Aversion is a cause for the origination of actions.

     Delusion is a cause for the origination of actions.

    Any action performed with greed -- born of greed, caused by greed, originating from greed: wherever one's selfhood turns up, there that action will ripen. Where that action ripens, there one will experience its fruit, either in this very life that has arisen or further along in the sequence.

    Any action performed with aversion -- born of aversion, caused by aversion, originating from aversion: wherever one's selfhood turns up, there that action will ripen. Where that action ripens, there one will experience its fruit, either in this very life that has arisen or further along in the sequence.

    Any action performed with delusion -- born of delusion, caused by delusion, originating from delusion: wherever one's selfhood turns up, there that action will ripen. Where that action ripens, there one will experience its fruit, either in this very life that has arisen or further along in the sequence.

      Just as when seeds are not broken, not rotten, not damaged by wind & heat, capable of sprouting, well-buried, planted in well-prepared soil, and the rain-god would offer good streams of rain. Those seeds would thus come to growth, increase, & abundance.

      In the same way, any action performed with greed... performed with aversion... performed with delusion -- born of delusion, caused by delusion, originating from delusion: wherever one's selfhood turns up, there that action will ripen. Where that action ripens, there one will experience its fruit, either in this very life that has arisen or further along in the sequence.

      These are three causes for the origination of actions.

      ...

      Now, these three are [further] causes for the origination of actions. Which three?

     Non-greed is a cause for the origination of actions.

     Non-aversion is a cause for the origination of actions.

     Non-delusion is a cause for the origination of actions.

    Any action performed with non-greed -- born of non-greed, caused by non-greed, originating from non-greed: When greed is gone, that action is thus abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

    Any action performed with non-aversion -- born of non-aversion, caused by non-aversion, originating from non-aversion: When aversion is gone, that action is thus abandoned, destroyed at the root, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

    Any action performed with non-delusion -- born of non-delusion, caused by non-delusion, originating from non-delusion: When delusion is gone, that action is thus abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

      Just as when seeds are not broken, not rotten, not damaged by wind & heat, capable of sprouting, well-buried, planted in well-prepared soil, and a man would burn them with fire and, burning them with fire, would make them into fine ashes. Having made them into fine ashes, he would winnow them before a high wind or wash them away in a swift-flowing stream. Those seeds would thus be destroyed at the root, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

      In the same way, any action performed with non-greed... performed with non-aversion... performed with non-delusion -- born of non-delusion, caused by non-delusion, originating from non-delusion: When delusion is gone, that action is thus abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

      These, monks, are three causes for the origination of action."

      (i.e. That doesnt mean that we should drop all actions now; or that all choices, actions or investments are bad. It only means that our actual actions are all mostly based on false expectations, on a wrong view about reality, on ignorance of the arising and falling away of everything. And the only way out is to gradually develop clear knowing / wisdom, using the Noble Path, the Middle Way. That is to make relatively better choices (accumulating merit), and accomplish relatively more wholesome actions of body speech and mind, that will ultimately permit to transcend all choices, all actions, all karma.)

v    SN36.3 Giving Up : (i.e. All unwholesome actions of body speech and mind, all defilements, are based on the three poisons desire, hate, delusion. They are all based on the ignorance of the relativity of all feelings, on the real nature of everything. Until one has direct knowledge of this, one should resist the reactive mode to feelings.)

       "In the case of pleasant feelings, O monks, the underlying tendency to lust should be given up;

      in the case of painful feelings, the underlying tendency to resistance (aversion) should be given up;

      in the case of neither-painful-nor-pleasant feelings, the underlying tendency to ignorance should be given up.

      If a monk has given up the tendency to lust in regard to pleasant feeling, the tendency to resistance in regard to painful feelings, and the tendency to ignorance in regard to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feelings, then he is called one who is free of (unwholesome) tendencies, one who has the right outlook. He has cut off craving, severed the fetters (to future existence), and through the full penetration of conceit, he has made an end of suffering."

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The need to abandon belief in absolute views and methods

v    AN8.53 - The Discourse to Gotami :

      [Wrong path] `These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome': You may definitely hold, `This is not the Dharma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher's instruction.'

      [Right path] `These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome': You may definitely hold, `This is the Dharma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher's instruction.'" (i.e. see sutras about the relativity of what is leading this way or not depending on the situation and beings. ex. AN3.78)

v    AN10.96 On Viewpoints : "How is it, my friend:

      `The cosmos is eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless.' Is this the sort of view you have?" "No, my friend, I don't have that sort of view."

      "Very well, then: `The cosmos is not eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless.' Is this the sort of view you have?" "No, my friend, I don't have that sort of view."

      Very well, then: `The cosmos is finite...' ...

      `The cosmos is infinite...' ...

      `The soul & the body are the same...' ...

      `The soul is one thing and the body another...' ...

      `After death a Tathagata exists...' ...

      `After death a Tathagata does not exist...' ...

      `After death a Tathagata both does & does not exist...' ...

      `After death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless.' Is this the sort of view you have?" "No, my friend, I don't have that sort of view."

v    SN12.48 - The Cosmologist : (i.e. The Middle Way about the self, before or after Total Unbinding: not existing, not non-existing, not both, not neither. And it is the same with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind before or after purification. These four extreme views are all dependently arisen views, complications, more karma.)

      "'Everything exists' is the senior form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Realism)

      'Everything does not exist' is the second form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Idealism or nihilism)

      'Everything is a Oneness' is the third form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Monism or oneness: neither existence nor non-existence)

      'Everything is a Manyness' is the fourth form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Dualism or manyness: both existence and non-existence)

      Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

v    SN12.46 - A Certain Brahmin : (i.e. The Middle Way about the subject: the one who creates karma and the one who experiences its consequences are not the same, not different non-dual: not one, not two no continuity (no existence), no discontinuity (no non-existence). And it is the same with everything that changes, from one moment to the next, with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind.)

      "[To say,] 'The one who acts is the same one who experiences,' is one extreme.

      [To say,] 'The one who acts is someone other than the one who experiences,' is the second extreme.

      Avoiding both of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma by means of the middle:

    [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

v    SN44.10 - To Ananda (on self, no self, and not-self) Being : (i.e. The self is not existing, not non-existing, not both, not neither. And it is the same with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind.)

    "Now then, Venerable Gotama, is there a self?" When this was said, the Blessed One was silent.

    "Then is there no self?" A second time, the Blessed One was silent.

      "Why, lord, did the Blessed One not answer when asked a question by Vacchagotta the wanderer?"

      "Ananda, if I -- being asked by Vacchagotta the wanderer if there is a self -- were to answer that there is a self, that would be conforming with those priests & contemplatives who are exponents of eternalism [the view that there is an eternal, unchanging soul].

      If I -- being asked by Vacchagotta the wanderer if there is no self -- were to answer that there is no self, that would be conforming with those priests & contemplatives who are exponents of annihilationism [the view that death is the annihilation of consciousness].

      If I -- being asked by Vacchagotta the wanderer if there is a self -- were to answer that there is a self, would that be in keeping with the arising of knowledge that all phenomena are not-self?" "No, lord."

      "And if I -- being asked by Vacchagotta the wanderer if there is no self -- were to answer that there is no self, the bewildered Vacchagotta would become even more bewildered: 'Does the self I used to have now not exist?'"

v    SNP4.5 On views : (i.e. Transcending all discrimination, all dualities; adopting no absolute position, no extreme view. All methods & views are dependently arisen, thus corrupted, unreliable so we should not be dependent on them we should adopt the Middle Way: not accepting as absolute or inherently existing, not rejecting as non-existent )

      "A person who associates himself with certain views, considering them as best and making them supreme in the world, he says, because of that, that all other views are inferior; therefore he is not free from contention (with others). In what is seen, heard, cognized and in ritual observances performed, he sees a profit for himself. Just by laying hold of that view he regards every other view as worthless.

      Those skilled (in judgment) say that (a view becomes) a bond if, relying on it, one regards everything else as inferior.

      Therefore a bhikkhu should not depend on what is seen, heard or cognized, nor upon ritual observances. (i.e. No real objects of the senses, concepts, ideas, theories, views, methods.)

      He should not present himself as equal to, nor imagine himself to be inferior, nor better than, another. (i.e. No absolute characteristic or classification.)

      Abandoning (the views) he had (previously) held and not taking up (another), he does not seek a support even in knowledge. (i.e. It is not about replacing our view of the world.)

      Among those who dispute he is certainly not one to take sides. (i.e. No reason to get involved into dispute about extreme views or absolutes.)

      He does not [have] recourse to a view at all. (i.e. Never affirming any view as absolute; but it is ok to use some as adapted skillful means while knowing its real nature.)

      In whom there is no inclination to either extreme, for becoming or non-becoming, here or in another existence, for him there does not exist a fixed viewpoint on investigating the doctrines assumed (by others). (i.e. The Middle Way between accepting and rejecting, between becoming and non-becoming..)

      Concerning the seen, the heard and the cognized he does not form the least notion. (i.e. Never believing in the inherent existence of any object of the senses or ideas, concepts, theories.)

    (i.e. MN1 : "Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as `mine,' does not delight in earth."

    UD1.10: "only the seen in reference to the seen, only the heard in reference to the heard, only the sensed in reference to the sensed, only the cognized in reference to the cognized")

      That brahmana [2] who does not grasp at a view, with what could he be identified in the world? (i.e. So nothing can define him; there is no lever to manipulate him.)

      They do not speculate nor pursue (any notion); doctrines are not accepted by them. (i.e. Not trying to find any ultimate truth.)

      A (true) brahmana is beyond, does not fall back on views." (i.e. He has seen through the real nature of all views and thus is free from them and their consequential suffering.)

v    MN72 - To Vacchagotta on Fire : (i.e. No absolute position or view; but still teaching what is skillful: origination & cessation, dependent origination)

      "'A "position," Vaccha, is something that a Tathagata has done away with. What a Tathagata sees is this:

    "Such is form, such its origin, such its disappearance;

    such is feeling, such its origin, such its disappearance;

    such is perception...

    such are mental fabrications...

    such is consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance."

      Because of this, I say, a Tathagata -- with the ending, fading out, cessation, renunciation, & relinquishment of all construings, all excogitations, all I-making & mine-making & tendencies to conceits -- is, through lack of sustenance/clinging, released.'"

v    On the Buddha has no view see also: MN72, MN95, SN22.86, AN4.24, AN4.183, AN10.93, AN10.94, AN10.96, SNP4.3, SNP4.5, SNP4.8.

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The need to abandon the illusion of the self

v    MN109 - The Great Full-moon Night Discourse & MN44 - The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers : (i.e. The illusions of a self that is the same or different than the five aggregates.)

      "Lord, how does self-identity view come about?" "There is the case, monk, where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person assumes

     form to be the [same as the] self,
(MN148: `This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.')

     or the self as possessing form,

     or form as in the self,

     or the self as in form.

      He assumes feeling to be the self, or the self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in the self, or the self as in feeling.

      He assumes perception to be the self, or the self as possessing perception, or perception as in the self, or the self as in perception.

      He assumes fabrications to be the self, or the self as possessing fabrications, or fabrications as in the self, or the self as in fabrications.

      He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness.

v    SN12.46 - A Certain Brahmin : (i.e. The Middle Way about the subject: the one who creates karma and the one who experiences its consequences are not the same, not different non-dual: not one, not two no continuity (no existence), no discontinuity (no non-existence). And it is the same with everything that changes, from one moment to the next, with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind.)

      "[To say,] 'The one who acts is the same one who experiences,' is one extreme.

      [To say,] 'The one who acts is someone other than the one who experiences,' is the second extreme.

      Avoiding both of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma by means of the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

v    SN22.81 At Palieyyaka : (i.e. The illusions of a self that is the same or different than the five aggregates.)

      "There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person assumes form to be the self. That assumption is a fabrication.

    Now what is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication?

    To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by that which is felt born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that.

    And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. That craving ... That feeling ... That contact ... That ignorance is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. It is by knowing & seeing in this way that one without delay puts an end to the effluents.

    Or he doesn't assume form to be the self, but he assumes the self as possessing form ... form as in the self ... self as in form

      or feeling to be the self ... the self as possessing feeling ... feeling as in the self ... self as in feeling

      or perception to be the self ... the self as possessing perception ... perception as in the self ... self as in perception

      or fabrications to be the self ... the self as possessing fabrications ... fabrications as in the self ... self as in fabrications

      or consciousness to be the self ... the self as possessing consciousness ... consciousness as in the self ... self as in consciousness.

      or 'This self is the same as the cosmos. This I will be after death, constant, lasting, eternal, not subject to change.' This eternalist view is a fabrication ....

      or 'I would not be, neither would there be what is mine. I will not be, neither will there be what is mine.' This annihilationist view is a fabrication ....

      or he may be doubtful & uncertain, having come to no conclusion with regard to the true Dharma. "

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The need to abandon all the fermentations / cankers / effluents / taints

v    Dhammapada 272 : "O monks, rest content, until the utter destruction of cankers (Arahatship) is reached."

v    Dhammapada 386 & 420 :

      "He who is meditative, stainless and settled, whose work is done and who is free from cankers, having reached the highest goal -- him do I call a holy man."

      "He whose track no gods, no angels, no humans trace, the Arahat who has destroyed all cankers -- him do I call a holy man."

v    Dhammapada 89 :

      "Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things -- rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbana in this very life."

      or : "Whose minds are well-developed in the factors of self-awakening, who delight in non-clinging, relinquishing grasping -- resplendent, their effluents ended: they, in the world, are Unbound."

v    Dhammapada 93 :

      "He whose cankers are destroyed and who is not attached to food, whose object is the Void, the Unconditioned Freedom -- his path cannot be traced, like that of birds in the air."

      or "Effluents ended, independent of nutriment, their pasture -- emptiness & freedom without sign: their trail, like that of birds through space, can't be traced."

v    MN 118 - Mindfulness of Breathing : "In this community of monks there are monks who are Arahants, whose mental effluents are ended, who have reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis: such are the monks in this community of monks. "

v    Dhammapada 292 :

      "The cankers only increase for those who are arrogant and heedless, who leave undone what should be done and do what should not be done.

      The cankers cease for those mindful and clearly comprehending ones who always earnestly practice mindfulness of the body, who do not resort to what should not be done, and steadfastly pursue what should be done."

v    Dhammapada 253 : "He who seeks another's faults, who is ever censorious -- his cankers grow. He is far from destruction of the cankers." or "If you focus on the errors of others, constantly finding fault, your effluents flourish. You're far from their ending."

v    MN102 - The Great Discourse on the Lion's Roar : "I understand Nibbana, and the path and way leading to Nibbana. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, by realizing it for himself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints."

v    AN6.63 Penetrative :

      "'Fermentations should be known The cause by which fermentations come into play... The diversity in fermentations... The result of fermentations... The cessation of fermentations... The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.'

      There are these three kinds of fermentations:

     the fermentation of sensuality,

     the fermentation of becoming,

     the fermentation of ignorance. (see more further)

v    MN9 - The Discourse on Right View:

      When, friends, a noble disciple understands the taints, the origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way leading to the cessation of the taints, in that way he is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dharma and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      There are three taints:

     the taint of sensual desire,

     the taint of being

     and the taint of ignorance. (see more further)

v    MN125 - The Discourse on the "Tamed Stage" :

      "Then with the mind composed... immovable, he directs his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

    He understands as it really is:

     This is anguish,

     this is the arising of anguish,

     this is the stopping of anguish,

     this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

    He understands as it really is:

     These are the cankers,

     this is the arising of the cankers,

     this is the stopping of the cankers,

     this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

      Knowing thus, seeing thus, his mind

     is freed from the canker of sense pleasures,

     is freed from the canker of becoming,

     freed from the canker of ignorance.

      In freedom the knowledge came to be: I am freed; and he comprehends: Destroyed is birth, brought to a close is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such or such.

      That monk is able to endure, head, cold, hunger, thirst, the touch of mosquitoes, gadflies, wind, sun and creeping things, abusive language and unwelcome modes of speech: he has grown to bear bodily feelings which as they arise are painful, acute, sharp, severe, wretched, miserable, deadly. Purged of all the dross and impurities of attachment, aversion and confusion, he is worthy of oblations, offerings, respect and homage, an unsurpassed field of merit in the world."

v    DN16 - Last Days of the Buddha :

      And the Blessed One, living at Rajagaha, at the hill called Vultures' Peak, often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."

      (Translator note: Taints: Asava: those defiling factors -- sensual desire, craving for existence, and ignorance -- primarily responsible for maintaining bondage to the cycle of rebirths. Also translated as "cankers" or "corruptions." Later texts add a fourth, the taint of wrong views.)

v    MN2 All the Fermentations / Taints : The Buddha teaches seven methods for eliminating the deeply-rooted defilements in the mind (sensuality, becoming, and ignorance) that obstruct the realization of Awakening.

      "Monks, the ending of the fermentations is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what? Appropriate attention & inappropriate attention.

    When a monk attends inappropriately, unarisen fermentations arise, and arisen fermentations increase.

    When a monk attends appropriately, unarisen fermentations do not arise, and arisen fermentations are abandoned. There are fermentations to be abandoned

     by seeing, (sensuality, becoming, ignorance, wrong views)

     by restraining, (the 6 sense-faculties)

     by using, (using the robe, the alms food, lodging, medicinal requisites ... appropriately)

     by tolerating, (heat, cold, ...)

     by avoiding, (wild animals, dangers, )

     by destroying, (thought of sensuality, ill will, cruelty, evil, unskillful mental qualities)

     by developing. (mindfulness, analysis of qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, equanimity)

v    SN12.23 Prerequisites :

      "Monks, the ending of the effluents (the destruction of the cankers) is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what is there the ending of effluents?

    'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is perception, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their disappearance.

    Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

    The ending of the effluents is for one who knows in this way & sees in this way.

v    SN36.11 Alone :

      "And I have also taught the step-by-step cessation of fabrications. When one has attained the first jhana, speech has ceased. When one has attained the second jhana, directed thought & evaluation have ceased. When one has attained the third jhana, rapture has ceased. When one has attained the fourth jhana, in-and-out breathing has ceased. When one has attained the dimension of the infinitude of space, the perception of forms has ceased. When one has attained the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space has ceased. When one has attained the dimension of nothingness, the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness has ceased. When one has attained the dimension of neither-perception nor non-perception, the perception of the dimension of nothingness has ceased. When one has attained the cessation of perception & feeling, perception & feeling have ceased. When a monk's effluents have ended, passion has ceased, aversion has ceased, delusion has ceased.

      Then, monk, I have also taught the step-by-step stilling of fabrications. When one has attained the first jhana, speech has been stilled. When one has attained the second jhana, directed thought & evaluation have been stilled. When one has attained the third jhana, rapture has been stilled. When one has attained the fourth jhana, in-and-out breathing has been stilled. When one has attained the dimension of the infinitude of space, the perception of forms has been stilled. When one has attained the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space has been stilled. When one has attained the dimension of nothingness, the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness has been stilled. When one has attained the dimension of neither-perception nor non-perception, the perception of the dimension of nothingness has been stilled. When one has attained the cessation of perception & feeling, perception & feeling have been stilled. When a monk's effluents have ended, passion has been stilled, aversion has been stilled, delusion has been stilled.

      There are these six calmings. When one has attained the first jhana, speech has been calmed. When one has attained the second jhana, directed thought & evaluation have been calmed. When one has attained the third jhana, rapture has been calmed. When one has attained the fourth jhana, in-and-out breathing has been calmed. When one has attained the cessation of perception & feeling, perception & feeling have been calmed. When a monk's effluents have ended, passion has been calmed, aversion has been calmed, delusion has been calmed."

.

The need to abandon ignorance, the root cause

v    Iti 14 : "Monks, I don't envision even one other obstruction -- obstructed by which people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time -- like the obstruction of ignorance. Obstructed with the obstruction of ignorance, people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time."

v    AN22.99 - The Leash : "Monks, from an inconstruable beginning comes transmigration. A beginning point is not evident, although beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving are transmigrating & wandering on.  ... for beings -- as long as they are hindered by ignorance, fettered by craving, transmigrating & wandering on -- I don't say that there is an end of suffering & stress"

v    SN45.1 Ignorance :

      "Monks, ignorance is the leader in the attainment of unskillful qualities, followed by lack of conscience & lack of concern.

    In a unknowledgeable person, immersed in ignorance, wrong view arises. In one of wrong view, wrong resolve arises. In one of wrong resolve, wrong speech .... In one of wrong speech, wrong action .... In one of wrong action, wrong livelihood .... In one of wrong livelihood, wrong effort .... In one of wrong effort, wrong mindfulness .... In one of wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration arises.

      Clear knowing is the leader in the attainment of skillful qualities, followed by conscience & concern.

    In a knowledgeable person, immersed in clear knowing, right view arises. In one of right view, right resolve arises. In one of right resolve, right speech .... In one of right speech, right action .... In one of right action, right livelihood .... In one of right livelihood, right effort .... In one of right effort, right mindfulness .... In one of right mindfulness, right concentration arises."

v    SN12.2: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising: "And what is ignorance? (i.e. All about ignorance of origination and cessation; of dependent originations and emptiness of inherent existence.)

    Not knowing stress,

    not knowing the origination of stress,

    not knowing the cessation of stress,

    not knowing the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: This is called ignorance.

.

The need to abandon the interdependent or inseparable taints/fermentations/effluents/cankers and ignorance together otherwise it is not complete

[Note: Abandoning those two together means to realize the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, the Middle Way between existence and non-existence. Just stopping all formations through deep concentration is not enough, because it is dependently arisen and impermanent.]

v    SN7.6 The Tangle : (i.e. Three stages of progression Liberation is reached by acting in accord with reality; that is the Middle Way: accumulating both merit (virtue) and wisdom (discernment, direct knowledge); that is by using virtuous adapted skillful means like renunciation, morality, concentration, etc., while gradually realizing their real nature (union of dependent origination and emptiness). The Middle Way: not accepting them as absolute (inherently existent), not rejecting them as completely useless or non-existent. Only by using this Middle Way can one cause the automatic abandonment of the three poisons, and reach Liberation.)

      "A man established in virtue, discerning (accumulating both merit & wisdom), developing discernment & mind (union of samatha & vipassana), a monk ardent, astute:  he can untangle this tangle. (using the Middle Way)

      Those whose passion, aversion, & ignorance (the three poisons) have faded away, Arahants, their effluents ended: for them the tangle's untangled. (liberation from all taints)

      Where name-&-form, along with perception of impingement & form, totally stop without trace:  that's where the tangle is cut." (complete release through final knowledge)

v    Iti.44 : "Bhikkhus, there are these two Nibbana-elements. What are the two? The Nibbana-element with residue left and the Nibbana-element with no residue left.

      What, bhikkhus, is the Nibbana-element with residue left? Here a bhikkhu is an arahant, one whose taints are destroyed, the holy life fulfilled, who has done what had to be done, laid down the burden, attained the goal, destroyed the fetters of being, completely released through final knowledge. However, his five sense faculties remain unimpaired, by which he still experiences what is agreeable and disagreeable and feels pleasure and pain. It is the extinction of attachment, hate, and delusion in him that is called the Nibbana-element with residue left.

      Now what, bhikkhus, is the Nibbana-element with no residue left? Here a bhikkhu is an arahant... completely released through final knowledge. For him, here in this very life, all that is experienced, not being delighted in, will be extinguished. That, bhikkhus, is called the Nibbana-element with no residue left.

v    UD3.2 : "Nanda, by the ending of the taints, has realized here and now the taintless mind-deliverance and wisdom-deliverance, and entering into it, he abides in it. your mind was released from the taints without grasping"

v    MN 119 - Mindfulness Immersed in the Body & SN51-20 : "Through the ending of the mental effluents, he remains in the effluent-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here & now. "

v    AN5.28 - The Factors of Concentration & AN3.100 : " If he wants, then through the ending of the mental effluents, he remains in the effluent-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here and now. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening."

v    [See sutras about the union of samatha and vipassana: AN4.41, ]

v    SN22.85: "And so, my friend Yamaka -- when you can't pin down the Tathagata as a truth or reality even in the present life -- is it proper for you to declare, 'As I understand the Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death'?"

v    SN22.86: "And so, Anuradha -- when you can't pin down the Tathagata as a truth or reality even in the present life -- (i.e. not the same, not different than the five aggregates -- and no other possibility) is it proper for you to declare,

    'Friends, the Tathagata -- the supreme man, the superlative man, attainer of the superlative attainment -- being described, is described otherwise than with these four positions:

     The Tathagata exists after death,

     does not exist after death,

     both does & does not exist after death,

     neither exists nor does not exist after death'?"

      "No, lord." (i.e. after death or before, and this applies to everything: the self and the five aggregates)

      "Very good, Anuradha. Very good.

      "Both formerly & now, it is only

    [the dependent origination of] stress

    and the [necessary] cessation of stress,

      that I describe." [It all comes down to realizing the Union of dependent origination & emptiness of the world & mind the Union of Two Truths.]

.

Abandoning unwholesomeness, the three poisons, the cankers, is done through using virtuous methods and understanding + directly knowing the arising & falling away of all dharma

[Should be known: wholesomeness & unwholesomeness, the three poisons, the five aggregates, the six sense-media, the four great elements, sensuality, feeling, perception, nutriment, suffering, the 12 links of dependent origination, stress, karma, fermentation, taints, cankers, effluents, the origination and necessary falling away of the world & mind (self).]

v    Iti.8-13 : "Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood conceit greed aversion... delusion... anger... contempt, who has not detached his mind from it and let go of it, is incapable of putting an end to stress. But one who has fully known & fully understood aversion... delusion... anger... contempt, who has detached his mind from it and let go of it, is capable of putting an end to stress."

v    SN22.101: The Ship :

      "I tell you, monks: It is for one who knows & sees that there is the ending of the effluents. For one who knows what & sees what is there the ending of the effluents?

    'Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away.

    Such is feeling, such its origination, such its passing away.

    Such is perception, such its origination, such its passing away.

    Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their passing away.

    Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its passing away.'

      It is for one who knows & sees in this way that there is the ending of the effluents.

      Even though this wish may occur to a monk who dwells without devoting himself to development. ... 'O that my mind might be released from effluents through lack of clinging!' -- still his mind is not released from the effluents through lack of clinging. Why is that? From lack of developing [the 37 qualities / factors / wings of awakening]

v    AN6.63 Penetrative :

    "Sensuality should be known. the cause .. the cessation

    "Feeling should be known. the cause.. the cessation

    "Perception should be known. the cause.. the cessation

    "Fermentation should be known. the cause.. the cessation

    "Stress should be known. the cause.. the cessation

    "'Karma should be known.

    The cause by which karma comes into play should be known.

    The cessation of karma should be known.

    The path of practice for the cessation of karma should be known.'

    The diversity in karma should be known.

    The result of karma should be known.

v    AN6.63 Penetrative :

    "'Fermentations should be known.

    The cause by which fermentations come into play...

    The diversity in fermentations...

    The result of fermentations...

    The cessation of fermentations...

    The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.'

      There are these three kinds of fermentations:

     the fermentation of sensuality,

     the fermentation of becoming,

     the fermentation of ignorance.

      And what is the cause by which fermentations comes into play?

    Ignorance is the cause by which fermentations comes into play.

      And what is the diversity in fermentations?

     There are fermentations that lead to hell,

     those that lead to the animal womb,

     those that lead to the realm of the hungry shades,

     those that lead to the human world,

     those that lead to the world of the devas.

      And what is the result of fermentations?

    One who is immersed in ignorance produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of fermentations.

      And what is the cessation of fermentations?

    From the cessation of ignorance is the cessation of fermentations; and just this noble eightfold path -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration -- is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.

      Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns fermentations in this way, the cause by which fermentations comes into play in this way, the diversity of fermentations in this way, the result of fermentations in this way, the cessation of fermentations in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of fermentations in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of fermentations.

v    MN9 - The Discourse on Right View:

"When, friends, a noble disciple understands [unwholesomeness]

     the unwholesome,

     the root of the unwholesome,

     the wholesome,

     and the root of the wholesome,

      in that way he is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dharma, and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      And what, friends, is the unwholesome, ? Killing living beings is unwholesome; taking what is not given is unwholesome; misconduct in sensual pleasures is unwholesome; false speech is unwholesome; malicious speech is unwholesome; harsh speech is unwholesome; gossip is unwholesome; covetousness is unwholesome; ill will is unwholesome; wrong view is unwholesome. This is called the unwholesome.

      And what is the root of the unwholesome?

    Greed is a root of the unwholesome;

    hate is a root of the unwholesome;

    delusion is a root of the unwholesome.

      And what is the wholesome? Abstention from killing living beings is wholesome; abstention from taking what is not given is wholesome; abstention from misconduct in sensual pleasures is wholesome; abstention from false speech is wholesome; abstention from malicious speech is wholesome; abstention from harsh speech is wholesome; abstention from gossip is wholesome; non-covetousness is wholesome; non-ill will is wholesome; right view is wholesome. This is called the wholesome.

      And what is the root of the wholesome?

    Non-greed is a root of the wholesome;

    non-hate is a root of the wholesome;

    non-delusion is a root of the wholesome.

      When a noble disciple has thus understood the unwholesome, the root of the unwholesome, the wholesome, and the root of the wholesome,

    he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to lust,

    he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion,

    he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit 'I am,' and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge

      he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dharma and has arrived at this true Dharma."

* * *

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands nutriment, the origin of nutriment, the cessation of nutriment, and the way leading to the cessation of nutriment

    With the arising of craving there is the arising of nutriment.

    With the cessation of craving there is the cessation of nutriment.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way leading to the cessation of suffering

    And what is the origin of suffering? It is craving, which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for being and craving for non-being.

    And what is the cessation of suffering? It is the remainderless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, letting go and rejecting of that same craving.

       "When, friends, a noble disciple understands aging and death, the origin of aging and death, the cessation of aging and death, and the way leading to the cessation of aging and death

    With the arising of birth there is the arising of aging and death.

    With the cessation of birth there is the cessation of aging and death.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands birth, the origin of birth, the cessation of birth, and the way leading to the cessation of birth

    With the arising of being there is the arising of birth.

    With the cessation of being there is the cessation of birth.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands being [becoming], the origin of being, the cessation of being, and the way leading to the cessation of being

    With the arising of clinging there is the arising of being.

    With the cessation of clinging there is the cessation of being.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands clinging, the origin of clinging, the cessation of clinging, and the way leading to the cessation of clinging

    With the arising of craving there is the arising of clinging.

    With the cessation of craving there is the cessation of clinging.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands craving, the origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading to the cessation of craving

    With the arising of feeling there is the arising of craving.

    With the cessation of feeling there is the cessation of craving.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands feeling, the origin of feeling, the cessation of feeling, and the way leading to the cessation of feeling

    With the arising of contact there is the arising of feeling.

    With the cessation of contact there is the cessation of feeling.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands contact, the origin of contact, the cessation of contact, and the way leading to the cessation of contact

    With the arising of the sixfold base there is the arising of contact.

    With the cessation of the sixfold base there is the cessation of contact.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands the sixfold base, the origin of the sixfold base, the cessation of the sixfold base, and the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base

    With the arising of mentality-materiality there is the arising of the sixfold base.

    With the cessation of mentality-materiality there is the cessation of the sixfold base.

      When, friends, a noble disciple understands mentality-materiality [name-&-form], the origin of mentality-materiality, the cessation of mentality-materiality, and the way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality

    With the arising of consciousness there is the arising of mentality-materiality.

    With the cessation of consciousness there is the cessation of mentality-materiality.

      "When, friends, a noble disciple understands consciousness, the origin of consciousness, the cessation of consciousness, and the way leading to the cessation of consciousness

    With the arising of formations there is the arising of consciousness.

    With the cessation of formations there is the cessation of consciousness.

(i.e. In other sutras it will be shown that consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, and do not go further. That is the nature of karma. That is what has to be realized. It seems that, here, name-&-form are represented by mentality-materiality, but also by formations and taints. All of this represents the cycle of karma.)

* * *

      When, friends, a noble disciple understands formations,

     the origin of formations,

     the cessation of formations,

     and the way leading to the cessation of formations,

      in that way he is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      There are these three kinds of formations:

     the bodily formation,

     the verbal formation,

     the mental formation.

      With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of formations.

      With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of formations.

      The way leading to the cessation of formations is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... right concentration.

      When a noble disciple has thus understood formations, the origin of formations, the cessation of formations, and the way leading to the cessation of formations,

    he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to lust,

    he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion,

    he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit 'I am,' and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge

      he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dharma."

* * *

      When, friends, a noble disciple understands ignorance, the origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way leading to the cessation of ignorance, in that way he is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      And what is ignorance, ?

     Not knowing about suffering,

     not knowing about the origin of suffering,

     not knowing about the cessation of suffering,

     not knowing about the way leading to the cessation of suffering -- this is called ignorance.

      With the arising of the taints there is the arising of ignorance.

      With the cessation of the taints there is the cessation of ignorance.

      The way leading to the cessation of ignorance is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... right concentration.

      When a noble disciple has thus understood ignorance, the origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way leading to the cessation of ignorance... he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dharma."

* * *

      When, friends, a noble disciple understands the taints,

     the origin of the taints,

     the cessation of the taints,

     and the way leading to the cessation of the taints,

      in that way he is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dharma and has arrived at this true Dharma.

      There are three taints:

     the taint of sensual desire,

     the taint of being

     and the taint of ignorance.

      With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of the taints.

      With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of the taints.

      The way leading to the cessation of the taints is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

      When a noble disciple has thus understood the taints, the origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way leading to the cessation of the taints,

    he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to lust,

    he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion,

    he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit 'I am,' and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge

      he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dharma and has arrived at this true Dharma."

v    SN12.63 A Sons Flesh :

      "When physical food is comprehended,
passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended.

      When passion for the five strings of sensuality is comprehended, there is no fetter bound by which a disciple of the noble ones would come back again to this world.

      When the nutriment of contact is comprehended,
the three feelings [pleasure, pain, neither pleasure nor pain] are comprehended.

      When the three feelings are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do.

      When the nutriment of intellectual intention is comprehended, the three forms of craving [for sensuality, for becoming, and for non-becoming] are comprehended.

      When the three forms of craving are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do.

      When the nutriment of consciousness is comprehended,
name & form are comprehended.

      When name & form are comprehended, I tell you, there is nothing further for a disciple of the noble ones to do."

v    MN125 - The Discourse on the "Tamed Stage" :

      "Then with the mind composed... immovable, he directs his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

      He understands as it really is:

     This is anguish,

     this is the arising of anguish,

     this is the stopping of anguish,

     this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

      He understands as it really is:

     These are the cankers,

     this is the arising of the cankers,

     this is the stopping of the cankers,

     this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

      Knowing thus, seeing thus,

     his mind is freed from the canker of sense pleasures,

     is freed from the canker of becoming,

     freed from the canker of ignorance.

      In freedom the knowledge came to be: I am freed; and he comprehends: Destroyed is birth, brought to a close is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such or such.

      That monk is able to endure, head, cold, hunger, thirst, the touch of mosquitoes, gadflies, wind, sun and creeping things, abusive language and unwelcome modes of speech: he has grown to bear bodily feelings which as they arise are painful, acute, sharp, severe, wretched, miserable, deadly. Purged of all the dross and impurities of attachment, aversion and confusion, he is worthy of oblations, offerings, respect and homage, an unsurpassed field of merit in the world."

v    SN12.23 Prerequisites :

      "Monks, the ending of the effluents (the destruction of the cankers) is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what is there the ending of effluents?

    'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is perception, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their disappearance.

    Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

    The ending of the effluents is for one who knows in this way & sees in this way.

v    SN35.204 The Riddle Tree :

      "When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away

    of the six media of sensory contact,

    of the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance,

    of the four great elements [earth, water, wind, & fire],

my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Even the four great elements are dependently arisen, thus empty f inherent existence.)

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, that whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Meaning that since everything is dependently arisen, then everything is empty of inherent existence.) "

v    AN8.2 Discernment :

      "Monks, these eight causes, these eight requisite conditions lead to the acquiring of the as-yet-unacquired discernment

      8. He remains focused on arising & passing away with regard to the five aggregates:

    'Such is form,

     such its origination,

     such its disappearance.

    Such is feeling...

     such its origination,

     such its disappearance.

    Such is perception...

     such its origination,

     such its disappearance.

    Such are fabrications...

     such its origination,

     such its disappearance.

    Such is consciousness,

     such its origination,

     such its disappearance.'

v    AN5.2 : "And what is the strength of discernment? There is the case where a monk, a noble disciple, is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising & passing away -- noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is called the strength of discernment."

v    SN12.15 - To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) & SN22.90:

      "By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity (i.e. duality), that of existence & non-existence.

      But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing origination = realizing the not non-existence = realizing Dependent Origination of all dharma).

      When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing cessation = realizing the not existence = realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma) (i.e. This is about the dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma in the world, or about the Middle Way between existence and non-existence, )

      'Everything exists': That is one extreme. (i.e. Realism) 'Everything doesn't exist': That is a second extreme.  (i.e. Quietism, idealism and nihilism) Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle:

o        [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

##

Meanwhile, the need to use antidotes and develop what is skillful

v    AN6.12 on cooperation: "six conditions that are conducive to amiability, that engender feelings of endearment, engender feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, harmony, & a state of unity"

v    AN5.200 Leading to escape : "Five properties lead to escape. Which five?

      There is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to sensual pleasures, doesn't leap up at sensual pleasures, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or released in sensual pleasures. But when attending to renunciation, his mind leaps up at renunciation, grows confident, steadfast, & released in renunciation.

      Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to ill will, doesn't leap up at ill will, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or released in ill will. But when attending to non-ill will, his mind leaps up at non-ill will, grows confident, steadfast, & released in non-ill will.

      "Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to harmfulness, doesn't leap up at harmfulness, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or released in harmfulness. But when attending to harmlessness, his mind leaps up at harmlessness, grows confident, steadfast, & released in harmlessness.

      Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to forms, doesn't leap up at forms, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or released in forms. But when attending to the formless, his mind leaps up at the formless, grows confident, steadfast, & released in the formless.

      Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to self-identity, doesn't leap up at self-identity, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or released in self-identity. But when attending to the cessation of self-identity, his mind leaps up at the cessation of self-identity, grows confident, steadfast, & released in the cessation of self-identity.

      When his mind is rightly-gone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained release, and become disjoined from self-identity , then whatever fermentations, torments, & fevers there are that arise in dependence on self-identity , he is released from them. He does not experience that feeling. This is expounded as the escape from self-identity .

    Delight in sensuality does not obsess him.

    Delight in ill will does not obsess him.

    Delight in harmfulness does not obsess him.

    Delight in form does not obsess him.

    Delight in self-identity does not obsess him.

      From

    the lack of any obsession with sensuality,

    the lack of any obsession with ill will...

    the lack of any obsession to harmfulness...

    the lack of any obsession to form...

    the lack of any obsession to self-identity,

      he is called a monk without attachment. He has cut through craving, has turned away from the fetter, and by rightly breaking through conceit he has put an end to suffering & stress.

v    SN8.4 - Ananda (Instructions to Vangisa) :

      Ven. Vangisa. Lust invaded his mind. So he addressed Ven. Ananda with this verse: With sensual lust I burn. My mind is on fire. Please, Gotama, from compassion, tell me how to put it out.

      [Ven. Ananda:] From distorted perception your mind is on fire.

      Shun the theme of the beautiful accompanied by lust.

      See mental fabrications as other, as stress, & not-self. (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.)

      Extinguish your great lust. Don't keep burning again & again.

      Develop the mind  -- well-centered & one -- in the foul, through the foul.

      Have your mindfulness immersed in the body.

      Be one who pursues disenchantment.

      Develop the theme-less. Cast out conceit.

      Then, from breaking through conceit, you will go on your way at peace.

v    AN5.161 - Subduing Hatred: "These are five ways of subduing hatred by which, when hatred arises in a monk, he should wipe it out completely. When one gives birth to hatred for an individual, one should develop good will for that individual ... one should develop compassion for that individual... equanimity toward that individual... one should pay him no mind & pay him no attention... one should direct one's thoughts to the fact of his being the product of his karma: 'This venerable one is the doer of his karma, heir of his karma, born of his karma, related by his karma, and is dependent on his karma. Whatever karma he does, for good or for evil, to that will he fall heir.' Thus the hatred for that individual should be subdued.".

v    AN6.19 - Mindfulness of Death  : "They develop mindfulness of death acutely for the sake of ending the effluents."

v    [See AN8.2: "Monks, these eight causes, these eight requisite conditions lead to the acquiring of the as-yet-unacquired discernment that is basic to the holy life, and to the increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of that which has already been acquired."]

v    [See AN5.27 & AN8.63 on the development of the four immeasurables, DN22 for the Four Frames of Reference, AN11.16 for good will, ]

##

The relativity of what is skillful or unskillful

v    AN3.78 Precept and Practice : (i.e. Transcending the duality wholesome vs. unwholesome practices, all discrimination; seeing through their real nature. There are no absolute; only adapted skillful means; and they are judged by their results in each situation.)

      "Ananda, every precept & practice, every life, every holy life that is followed as of essential worth: is every one of them fruitful?" "Lord, that is not [to be answered] with a categorical answer." "In that case, Ananda, give an analytical answer." "When -- by following a life of precept & practice, a life, a holy life that is followed as of essential worth -- one's unskillful mental qualities increase while one's skillful mental qualities decline: that sort of precept & practice, life, holy life that is followed as of essential worth is fruitless. But when -- by following a life of precept & practice, a life, a holy life that is followed as of essential worth -- one's unskillful mental qualities decline while one's skillful mental qualities increase: that sort of precept & practice, life, holy life that is followed as of essential worth is fruitful."

v    AN3.65 (Kalama Sutra) & AN3.66: (i.e. One should rely on his own experience to realize what is skillful and unskillful, watching carefully the results of his choices and actions.)

      "Come, Salha, do not be satisfied with hearsay or with tradition or with legendary lore or with what has come down in scriptures or with conjecture or with logical inference or with weighing evidence or with a liking for a view after pondering it or with someone else's ability or with the thought 'The monk is our teacher.' When you know in yourself 'These things are unprofitable, liable to censure, condemned by the wise, being adopted and put into effect, they lead to harm and suffering,' then you should abandon them. greed .. hate delusion "Come Salha, do not be satisfied with hearsay...or with the thought, 'The monk is our teacher.' When you know in yourself: 'These things are profitable, blameless, commended by the wise, being adopted and put into effect they lead to welfare and happiness,' then you should practice them and abide in them. ... non-greed ... non-hate ... non-delusion ...

##

Relativity of karma

v    AN3.99 -The Salt Crystal : (i.e. Relativity of the consequences of karma)

      "Monks, for anyone who says, 'In whatever way a person makes karma, that is how it is experienced,' there is no living of the holy life, there is no opportunity for the right ending of stress.

      But for anyone who says, 'When a person makes karma to be felt in such & such a way, that is how its result is experienced,' there is the living of the holy life, there is the opportunity for the right ending of stress.

    There is the case where a trifling evil deed done by a certain individual takes him to hell.

    There is the case where the very same sort of trifling deed done by another individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "

v    MN136 - The Great Exposition of Karma  : (i.e. Relativity of the consequences of karma no absolute)

      "Ananda, there are four kinds of persons existing in the world. What four?

    Here some person kills living beings, takes what is not given, misconducts himself in sexual desires, speaks falsehood, speaks maliciously, speaks harshly, gossips, is covetous, is ill-willed, and has wrong view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.

    But here some person kills living beings... and has wrong view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.

    Here some person abstains from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, from misconduct in sexual desires, from false speech, from malicious speech, from harsh speech, from gossip, he is not covetous, is not ill-willed, and has right view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.

    But here some person abstains from killing living beings... and has right view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.

      [But he rejects the claim that we can deduct absolute karmic laws from these observations]

    Now, Ananda, there is the person who has killed living beings here... has had wrong view. And on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. But (perhaps) the evil karma producing his suffering was done by him earlier, or the evil karma producing his suffering was done by him later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death. And that was why, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappeared in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. But since he has killed living beings here... has had wrong view, he will feel the result of that here and now, or in his next rebirth, or in some subsequent existence.

    Now there is the person who has killed living beings here... has had wrong view. And on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. But (perhaps) the good karma producing his happiness was done by him earlier, or the good karma producing his happiness was done by him later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death. And that was why, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappeared in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. But since he has killed living beings here... has had wrong view, he will feel the result of that here and now, or in his next rebirth, or in some subsequent existence.

    Now there is the person who has abstained from killing living beings here... has had right view. And on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. But (perhaps) the good karma producing his happiness was done by him earlier, or the good karma producing his happiness was done by him later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death. And that was why, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappeared in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. But since he has abstained from killing living beings here... has had right view, he will feel the result of that here and now, or in his next rebirth, or in some subsequent existence.

    Now there is the person who has abstained from killing living beings here... has had right view. And on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. But (perhaps) the evil karma producing his suffering was done by him earlier, or the evil karma producing his suffering was done by him later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death. And that was why, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappeared in the states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. But since he has abstained from killing living beings here... has had right view, he will feel the result of that here and now, or in his next rebirth, or in some subsequent existence.

      So, Ananda,

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result);

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result)."

v    MN136 - The Great Exposition of Karma :

      "So, Ananda,

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result);

    there is karma that is incapable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears capable (of good result);

    there is karma that is capable (of good result) and appears incapable (of good result)."

v    AN4.77 Unconjecturable : (i.e. Relativity of the consequences of karma. We cannot predict the karma results because there is no absolute cause and effect) "There are these four unconjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them. Which four?

      The Buddha-range of the Buddhas [i.e., the range of powers a Buddha develops as a result of becoming a Buddha] is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

      The jhana-range of a person in jhana [i.e., the range of powers that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana] is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

      The [precise working out of the] results of karma is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

      Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it."

##

The Middle Way about karma: not absolute, not non-existent

v    SN12.46 - A Certain Brahmin : (i.e. The Middle Way about the subject: the one who creates karma and the one who experiences its consequences are not the same, not different non-dual: not one, not two no continuity (no existence), no discontinuity (no non-existence). And it is the same with everything that changes, from one moment to the next, with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind.)

      "[To say,] 'The one who acts is the same one who experiences,' is one extreme.

      [To say,] 'The one who acts is someone other than the one who experiences,' is the second extreme.

      Avoiding both of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma by means of the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination] (i.e. The Middle Way between existence and non-existence, between continuity and discontinuity: the union of dependently co-origination and emptiness of inherent existence.)

v    "AN3.61 - Sectarians : (i.e. The Middle Way about karma: staying away from extreme views about it.)

      "Monks, there are these three [extreme views about the origin of feelings: `Whatever a person experiences -- pleasant, painful, or neither pleasant nor painful --

    'that is all caused by what was done in the past'

    'that is all caused by a supreme being's act of creation'

    'that is all without cause & without condition'

      Then I said to them ... When one falls back

    on what was done in the past as being essential,

    on creation by a supreme being as being essential,

    on lack of cause and lack of condition as being essential

      monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], `This should be done. This shouldn't be done.' When one can't pin down as a truth or reality what should & shouldn't be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a contemplative. This was my first righteous refutation of those priests & contemplative who hold to such teachings, such views."

v    SN36.21 - To Sivaka : (i.e. The Middle Way about karma: staying away from extreme views about it.)

      "There are, revered Gotama, some ascetics and brahmins who have this doctrine and view: `Whatever a person experiences, be it pleasure, pain or neither-pain-nor-pleasure, all that is caused by previous action.' Now, what does the revered Gotama say about this?"

    Produced by (disorders of the) bile, there arise, Sivaka, certain kinds of feelings. That this happens, can be known by oneself; also in the world it is accepted as true.

    Produced by (disorders of the) phlegm ...

    of wind ...

    of (the three) combined ...

    by change of climate ...

    by adverse behavior ...

    by injuries ...

    by the results of Karma -- (through all that), Sivaka, there arise certain kinds of feelings. That this happens can be known by oneself; also in the world it is accepted as true.

      Now when these ascetics and brahmins have such a doctrine and view that `whatever a person experiences, be it pleasure, pain or neither-pain-nor-pleasure, all that is caused by previous action,' then they go beyond what they know by themselves and what is accepted as true by the world. Therefore, I say that this is wrong on the part of these ascetics and brahmins."

v    MN117 The Great Forty : "And what is right view? Right view, I tell you, is of two sorts:

    There is right view with fermentations [asava], siding with merit, resulting in the acquisitions [of becoming]; (i.e. The skillful means of the teaching of karma)

    and there is noble right view, without fermentations, transcendent, a factor of the path. (i.e. The Middle Way about karma: not accepting, not rejecting; between existence and non-existence)

      And what is the right view that has fermentations, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? (i.e. Mundane)

     'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed.

     There are fruits & results of good & bad actions.

     There is this world & the next world.

     There is mother & father.

     There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.'

     This is the right view that has fermentations, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

      And what is the right view that is without fermentations, transcendent, a factor of the path?

     The discernment, the faculty of discernment, the strength of discernment,

     analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, the path factor of right view in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is free from fermentations, who is fully possessed of the noble path.

     This is the right view that is without fermentations, transcendent, a factor of the path.

##

Rebirth should not be taken literally

v    Prajnaparamita The Perfection of wisdom :

      "Question: If impermanence is not actually the case, why did the Buddha speak of impermanence?

      Response: The Buddha accorded with what was appropriate for particular beings and so spoke the Dharma for their sakes.

      It was in order to refute the inverted view which imagines permanence that he spoke of impermanence.

      In the opposite case, because people were unaware of or did not believe in later existences, he spoke of the [permanent] mind going on into a later existence and being reborn in the heavens, explaining that the karmic causes and conditions of offenses and merit are not lost even in a million kalpas. (i.e. No absolute, only adapted skillful means. The Middle Way: staying away from any extreme by using its opposite / antidote while not getting attached to it either.)

      These are instances of the counteractive siddhaanta. They do not represent the supreme meaning siddhaanta. The ultimate reality aspect of all dharmas is neither permanent nor impermanent. Then too, the Buddha spoke in place after place of the emptiness of dharmas. In the sphere of the emptiness of dharmas, impermanence [itself] is non-existent. Therefore, to declare that the world is impermanent is an erroneous view. Hence one refers to the emptiness of dharmas. "

v    Prajnaparamita - Birth and Death and the Unmoving Mind :

      Question: The five aggregates are impermanent, empty and devoid of a self. Why [were these beings] led to gain rebirth in the heavens? So just who is it that dies and who is it that is born?

      Reply: This matter has already been extensively treated in the chapter "In Praise of the Bodhisattvas." Now, we shall [merely] offer a summary reply. As for your claim that the five aggregates are "empty, impermanent, and devoid of a self," in this Prajnaparamita, the five aggregates are devoid of permanence, impermanence, emptiness, non - emptiness, self and non - self. If, like the non - buddhist, one seeks to find an actual self, this cannot be found. It is only on account of false names and the coming together of all manner of causes and conditions that it is [perceived as] existent. There are these names.

      This is analogous to [a pair of] magically - conjured men who proceed to kill each other. And so people see them die. By the power of the magical conjuration they are caused to rise up again. And so people see them come to life. Although the names "birth" and "death" do exist, they are devoid of any reality. In the realm of worldly dharmas, there truly do exist birth and death. But in the dharma of the reality mark, there is no birth and there is no death.

      Then again, one may say that those people who are subject to birth and death [are the ones who] do have birth and death whereas those people who are not subject to birth and death [are the ones who] have no birth and death. How is this so? The person who is not born and does not die, by employing the great wisdom, is able to put to an end the feature of being subject to birth. This is as described in a verse which says:

In the Dharma of the Buddha, though marks are empty,
Still, they're not cut off and annihilated.
Although there is production, still, this is not eternalism.
Actions and their karma are not lost.
All dharmas are like [the stalk of] the plantain.
Everything arises from the mind.
If one is aware that dharmas are devoid of reality,
This mind itself is also [seen as] empty.

If there is a man who [is fixed on] mindfulness of emptiness,
This then is a practice contrary to the Way,
Dharmas are neither produced nor destroyed.
Because of the existence of thought one mistakes their [actual] features.
If one is possessed of thought one falls into the demon's net.
Through the absence of thought one makes his escape.
Through movement of the mind one contravenes the Way.
Not moving,- this is the imprint of Dharma.

v    [i.e. The real meaning of rebirth, and birth and death, are more subtle than what we usually think about them. There is no real birth & death, no real origination, duration and cessation. Nothing stays the same even for an infinitesimal moment; everything is always dependent on an infinity of causes and conditions, ever changing; so what birth, duration and death are we talking about. The same for karma But still they are useful introductory skillful means, and their understanding are the door to more subtle concepts, and insights ]

Dependent co-origination of the world and mind

It is all about realizing the origination and falling away of all dharma of the world & self

v    AN5.159 - About Udayin: 'I will speak explaining the sequence [of cause & effect].'

v    SN6.1 The Request : "For a generation delighting in attachment, excited by attachment, enjoying attachment, this/that conditionality and dependent co-arising are hard to see."

v    DN15 - The Great Causes Discourse : "It's amazing, lord, it's astounding, how deep this dependent co-arising is, and how deep its appearance, and yet to me it seems as clear as clear can be." [The Buddha:] "Don't say that, Ananda. Don't say that. Deep is this dependent co-arising, and deep its appearance. It's because of not understanding and not penetrating this Dharma that this generation is like a tangled skein, a knotted ball of string, like matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, and bad destinations. ... "

      [then followed an explanation of the 12 links + details; including the interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form. See : SN12.65 & SN12.67 for more on this non-duality.]

      'Name-and-form comes from consciousness as its requisite condition.'

      'Consciousness comes from name-and-form as its requisite condition.'

v    UD1.3: Bodhi Sutra Awakening :

      When this is, that is.

      From the arising of this comes the arising of that.

      When this isn't, that isn't.

      From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that.

      In other words: [the 12 links both ways]"

v    AN10.92: Animosity : "And which is the noble method that he has rightly seen & rightly ferreted out through discernment? " "There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones notices:

      When this is, that is.

      From the arising of this comes the arising of that.

      When this isn't, that isn't.

      From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that.

      In other words: [the 12 links both ways]"

v    SN22.86 - To Anuradha :

      "Both formerly & now, it is only

    [the dependent origination of] stress

    and the [necessary] cessation of stress,

      that I describe." [It all comes down to realizing the Union of dependent origination & emptiness of the world & mind the Union of Two Truths.]

v    Dharmapada 277-279 : "When you see with discernment, 'All fabrications are inconstant' -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity. When you see with discernment, 'All fabrications are stressful' -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity. When you see with discernment, 'All phenomena are not-self' (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self. Consciousness and name-&-form are interdependent, inseparable.) -- you grow disenchanted with stress. This is the path to purity."

v    DN16 - The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding : "Enough, friends. Don't grieve. Don't lament. Hasn't the Blessed One already taught the state of growing different with regard to all things dear & appealing, the state of becoming separate, the state of becoming otherwise? What else is there to expect? It's impossible that one could forbid anything born, existent, fabricated, & subject to disintegration from disintegrating."

v    MN44 - The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers: "Is the noble eightfold path fabricated or unfabricated?" "The noble eightfold path is fabricated." (i.e. The Noble Path is also empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen; no absolute, only adapted skillful means)

v    AN56.11 - Setting the Wheel of Dharma in Motion : " there arose to Ven. Kondaa the dustless, stainless Dharma eye: Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation." (i.e. Everything is empty of inherent existence (not existent, falling away) because dependently arisen (not non-existent, arisen); and vice versa.)

v    Iti3.85 : "... Remain focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications. ... For one who remains focused on the inconstancy of all fabrications, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises."

v    AN5.57 - Subjects for Contemplation : ""I am the owner of my actions (karma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and live dependent on my actions. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir " (i.e. even the self is subject to dependent origination and necessary falling away)

##

The dependent co-origination of all dharma

[Dependent origination of the world, of the six sense-media, of the five aggregates, of the four great elements, of the 12 links of dependent origination, of stress, of the self, of views about production, of extreme views, of obsessions, complications, disputes,

Interdependence of world and mind, of name-&-form and consciousness, ]

.

Dependent origination of the world

v    SN12.15 - To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) & SN22.90:

      "By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity (i.e. duality), that of existence & non-existence.

      But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing origination = realizing the not non-existence = realizing Dependent Origination of all dharma).

      When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one (i.e. realizing cessation = realizing the not existence = realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma) (i.e. This is about the dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence of all dharma in the world, or about the Middle Way between existence and non-existence, )

      'Everything exists': That is one extreme. (i.e. Realism)

      'Everything doesn't exist': That is a second extreme.  (i.e. Quietism, idealism and nihilism)

      Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle: [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

v    SN12.44 The World : "I will teach you the origination of the world & the ending of the world.

      And what is the origination of the world? (i.e. dependent origination of the world)

    Dependent on the eye & forms there arises eye-consciousness.

     The meeting of the three is contact.

     From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

     From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

     From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance.

     From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

     From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

     From birth as a requisite condition, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play. This is the origination of the world.

    Dependent on the ear & sounds there arises ear-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the nose & aromas there arises nose-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the tongue & flavors there arises tongue-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the body & tactile sensations there arises body-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the intellect & mental qualities there arises intellect-consciousness.

      And what is the ending of the world?

    Dependent on the eye & forms there arises eye-consciousness.

     The meeting of the three is contact.

     From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

     From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

     Now, from the remainderless cessation & fading away of that very craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance.

     From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming.

     From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth.

     From the cessation of birth, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease.

     Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is the ending of the world.

    Dependent on the ear & sounds there arises ear-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the nose & aromas there arises nose-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the tongue & flavors there arises tongue-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the body & tactile sensations there arises body-consciousness. The meeting of the three is contact ....

    Dependent on the intellect & mental qualities there arises intellect-consciousness. "

v    SN35.204 The Riddle Tree :

      "When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away of the six media of sensory contact, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified."

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away of the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified."

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, the origination & passing away of the four great elements [earth, water, wind, & fire], my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. Even the four great elements are dependently arisen, thus empty f inherent existence.)

      When a monk discerns, as it actually is, that whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation, my friend, it is to that extent that his vision is said to be well-purified." (i.e. The necessity to realize the dependent origination of all dharma) "

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Dependent origination of the five aggregates

v    MN109 The Great Full-moon Night Discourse : "Lord, what is the cause, what the condition, for the delineation[2] of the aggregate of form of feeling ... perception ... fabrications ... consciousness?" (i.e. dependent origination of the five aggregates)

      "Monk, the four great existents (earth, water, fire, & wind) are the cause, the four great existents the condition, for the delineation of the aggregate of form.

      Contact is the cause, contact the condition, for the delineation of the aggregate of feeling.

      Contact is the cause, contact the condition, for the delineation of the aggregate of perception.

      Contact is the cause, contact the condition, for the delineation of the aggregate of fabrications.

      Name-&-form is the cause, name-&-form the condition, for the delineation of the aggregate of consciousness."

      "Monk, whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on form: that is the allure of form. The fact that form is inconstant, stressful, subject to change: that is the drawback of form. The subduing of desire & passion, the abandoning of desire & passion for form: that is the escape from form.

      Whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on feeling: that is the allure of feeling...

      Whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on perception: that is the allure of perception...

      Whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on fabrications: that is the allure of fabrications...

      Whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on consciousness: that is the allure of consciousness. The fact that consciousness is inconstant, stressful, subject to change: that is the drawback of consciousness. The subduing of desire & passion, the abandoning of desire & passion for consciousness: that is the escape from consciousness."

v    MN148 The Six Sextets : (i.e. dependent origination of consciousness, contact, feeling, craving / three poisons desire, hate, delusion)

      "Dependent on the eye & forms there arises consciousness at the eye. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as a requisite condition there is feeling [pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain]. With feeling as a requisite condition there is craving.

    If, when touched by a feeling of pleasure, one relishes it, welcomes it, or remains fastened to it, then the underlying tendency to passion lies latent within one.

    If, when touched by a feeling of pain, one sorrows, grieves, & laments, beats one's breast, becomes distraught, then the underlying tendency to resistance lies latent within one.

    If, when touched by a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain, one does not discern, as it actually is present, the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, or escape from that feeling, then the underlying tendency to ignorance lies latent within one.

      Dependent on the ear & sounds

      Dependent on the nose & aromas

      Dependent on the tongue & flavors

      Dependent on the body & tactile sensations

      Dependent on the intellect & ideas

v    SN36.9 - Impermanent : (i.e. dependent origination of feelings) "The three kinds of feelings, O monks, are impermanent, compounded, dependently arisen, liable to destruction, to evanescence, to fading away, to cessation -- namely, pleasant feeling, painful feeling and neutral feeling."

v    SN36.7 The Sick Ward : (i.e. dependent origination of feelings) "As he is dwelling thus mindful & alert--heedful, ardent, & resolute -- a feeling of [pleasure, pain or ] neither-pleasure-nor-pain arises in him. He discerns that 'A feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain has arisen in me. It is dependent on a requisite condition, not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body. Now, this body is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. Being dependent on a body that is inconstant, fabricated, & dependently co-arisen, how can this feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain that has arisen be constant?' He remains focused on inconstancy with regard to the body & to the feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He remains focused on dissolution ... dispassion ... cessation ... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain. As he remains focused on inconstancy ... dissolution ... dispassion ... cessation ... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain, he abandons any latent tendency to ignorance with regard to the body & the feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain."

v    SN36.10 - Rooted in Sense-impression : (i.e. dependent origination of feelings) "There are, O monks, these three feelings, rooted in sense-impression, caused by sense-impression, conditioned by sense-impression: pleasant, painful and neutral feelings. Dependent on a sense-impression that is liable to be felt as pleasurable, there arises a pleasant feeling. When that very sense-impression liable to be felt as pleasurable has ceased, then the sensation born from it -- namely the pleasant feeling that arose dependent on that sense-impression -- also ceases and is stilled. Dependent on a sense-impression that is liable to be felt as painful (or neutral), there arises a painful (or neutral) feeling. When that very sense-impression liable to be felt as painful (or neutral) has ceased, then the sensation born from it -- namely the painful (or neutral) feeling that arose dependent on that sense-impression -- also ceases and is stilled."

v    MN11 The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar : (i.e. dependent origination of clinging)

      "Now these four kinds of clinging have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced?

    These four kinds of clinging have craving as their source, craving as their origin, they are born and produced from craving.

    Craving has what as its source ...? Craving has feeling as its source....

    Feeling has what as its source ...? Feeling has contact as its source ...

    Contact has what as its source ...? Contact has the sixfold base as its source....

    The sixfold base has what as its source ...? The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as its source....

    Mentality-materiality has what as its source ...? Mentality-materiality has consciousness as its source....

    Consciousness has what as its source ...? Consciousness has formations as its source....

    Formations have what as their source ...? Formations have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their origin; they are born and produced from ignorance.

      Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge he

    no longer clings to sensual pleasures,

    no longer clings to views,

    no longer clings to rules and observances,

    no longer clings to a doctrine of self.

    When he does not cling, he is not agitated.

    When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nirvana.

    He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.' "

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Dependent origination of the 12 links; interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form

v    SN12.20 - Requisite Conditions + SN12.65 The City + SN12.2 Analysis of Dependent Co-arising : "Monks, I will teach you dependent co-arising & dependently co-arisen phenomena. (i.e. dependent origination of the 12 links & interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form, or the world and mind)

Now what is dependent co-arising?

      From birth as a requisite condition comes aging & death.

    Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this regularity of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma, this this/that conditionality. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, makes it plain, & says, 'Look.' From birth as a requisite condition comes aging & death. [same for each of the 12]

    Now what is aging and death? Whatever aging, decrepitude, brokenness, graying, wrinkling, decline of life-force, weakening of the faculties of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called aging. Whatever deceasing, passing away, breaking up, disappearance, dying, death, completion of time, break up of the aggregates, casting off of the body, interruption in the life faculty of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called death.

    And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] media of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.

      From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth....

    And what is becoming? These three are becomings: sensual becoming, form becoming, & formless becoming. This is called becoming. (i.e. Nirvana is presented as the prevention of being in any of the three realms of existence: body, speech and mind or desire/sense realm, form realm, and formless realm. In fact it is the Middle way between existence and non-existence. And the purification of our body speech and mind (the five aggregates) is accomplished by directly realizing the real nature of those three realms, their inseparability, their non-duality. That is how we transmute our impure body speech & mind into the pure body speech and mind of a Buddha (the trikaya). By directly realizing the interdependence and inseparability of the world and mind. -- "The three realms of desire, form, and the formless, are the cities of appearance, half-appearance, and non-appearance. This is because they have coarse appearance, subtle appearance, and none at all.")

      From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming....

    And what is clinging/sustenance? These four are clingings: sensuality clinging, view clinging, precept & practice clinging, and doctrine of self clinging. This is called clinging.

      From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance....

    And what is craving? These six are classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for smells, craving for tastes, craving for tactile sensations, craving for ideas. This is called craving.

      From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving....

    And what is feeling? These six are classes of feeling: feeling born from eye-contact, feeling born from ear-contact, feeling born from nose-contact, feeling born from tongue-contact, feeling born from body-contact, feeling born from intellect-contact. This is called feeling.

      From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling [pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain]....

    And what is contact? These six are classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, intellect-contact. This is called contact.

      From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact....

    And what are the six sense media? These six are sense media: the eye-medium, the ear-medium, the nose-medium, the tongue-medium, the body-medium, the intellect-medium. These are called the six sense media.

      From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media....

    And what is name-&-form? Feeling, perception, intention, contact, & attention: This is called name. The four great elements, and the form dependent on the four great elements: This is called form. This name & this form are called name-&-form.

      From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form....

    And what is consciousness? These six are classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, intellect-consciousness. This is called consciousness.

(SN12.65: Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form:

"Name-&-form exists when consciousness exists.

From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form.

Consciousness exists when name-&-form exists.

From name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness.

This consciousness turns back at name-&-form, and goes no farther." See also SN12.67)

      From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness....

    And what are fabrications? These three are fabrications: bodily fabrications, verbal fabrications, mental fabrications. These are called fabrications.

      From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications.

    And what is ignorance? Not knowing stress, not knowing the origination of stress, not knowing the cessation of stress, not knowing the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: This is called ignorance.

What's there in this way is a reality, not an unreality, not other than what it seems, conditioned by this/that. This is called dependent co-arising."

And what are dependently co-arisen phenomena?

      Aging & death are dependently co-arisen phenomena: inconstant, compounded, dependently co-arisen, subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation.

      Birth is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Becoming is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Clinging/sustenance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Craving is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Feeling is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Contact is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      The six sense media are dependently co-arisen phenomena....

      Name-&-form is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Consciousness is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon....

      Fabrications are dependently co-arisen phenomena....

      Ignorance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon: inconstant, compounded, dependently co-arisen, subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation.

These are called dependently co-arisen phenomena.

When a noble disciple has seen well with right discernment this dependent co-arising & these dependently co-arisen phenomena as they are actually present, it is not possible

    that he would run after the past, thinking, 'Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what was I in the past?'

    or that he would run after the future, thinking, 'Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I be in the future?'

    or that he would be inwardly perplexed about the immediate present, thinking, 'Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where is it bound?

Such a thing is not possible. Why is that? Because the noble disciple has seen well with right discernment this dependent co-arising & these dependently co-arisen phenomena as they are actually present.

(i.e. More on the three realms of becoming : Here we are talking about the objects of consciousness / the various phenomena/beings in the three worlds.

BODY / COARSE: The Sense-World (including the Six Realms) is designated as purely the domain of sensuous desires, since its objects are bounded, 'I'-conditioned, in their individualness set in contrast with the subject, incapable of union with the subject, and hence beget that state of tension (dualism) which we call craving. -- Material objects which are limited. Perceivable through the senses.

SPEECH / SUBTLE: The Realm of Pure Form is intermediary between the two other realms inasmuch as it has something in common with each of the two - with the sense-domain, the property of form-ness; with the formless domain, the property of abstraction, namely, from the egocentricity of the lower domain of the senses filled with desires. That this is no mere artificial, intellectual abstraction, follows from the intuitive character of these two domains. The properties of each domain are not something added to their particular character, but only modifications of the same. -- Immaterial objects which are limited. Not perceptible to the lower senses, but certainly to the higher senses, when free from 'I', and therefore able to merge completely into the object, to become one with it, to experience it from within -- The consciousness in the realm of Pure Form: the five jhanas.

MIND / VERY SUBTLE: The objects belonging to the Realm of Non-Form possess no limiting boundaries, are beyond all multiplicity and every kind of isolation or 'I'-entanglement. With this is excluded all possibility of tension, of craving. -- Immaterial objects which are unlimited. Perceivable by the mind. -- The consciousness in the realm of Non-Form: the fifth jhana. - ex. of objects: space, the infinity of space, the infinity of consciousness, nothingness, emptiness of consciousness

-- from Govinda see in Great Chariot-3)

v    AN3.61 - Tittha Sutra Sectarians : The Middle Way about karma; the teachings of the Buddha doesnt have the faults of the extremes (i.e. The relation between the Four Noble Truths and the 12 links of Dependent Origination)

      And what is the noble truth of stress? Birth is stress, aging is stress, death is stress; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with what is not loved is stress, separation from what is loved is stress, not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance are stress. This is called the noble truth of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress?

    From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications.

    From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness.

    From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form.

    From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media.

    From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact.

    From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

    From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

    From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance.

    From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

    From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

    From birth as a requisite condition, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play.

      Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origination of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the cessation of stress?

    From the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications.

    From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness.

    From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form.

    From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media.

    From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact.

    From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling.

    From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving.

    From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance.

    From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming.

    From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth.

    From the cessation of birth, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease.

      Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of stress.

      And what is the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. "

v    SN12.48 - The Cosmologist : (i.e. The Middle Way about the self, before or after Total Unbinding: not existing, not non-existing, not both, not neither. And it is the same with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind before or after purification. These four extreme views are all dependently arisen views, complications, more karma.)

      "'Everything exists' is the senior form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Realism)

      'Everything does not exist' is the second form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Idealism or nihilism)

      'Everything is a Oneness' is the third form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Monism or oneness: neither existence nor non-existence)

      'Everything is a Manyness' is the fourth form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Dualism or manyness: both existence and non-existence)

      Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma via the middle:

    From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications.

    From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness.

(SN12.65: Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form:

"Consciousness exists when name-&-form exists.

From name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness

This consciousness turns back at name-&-form, and goes no farther.

Name-&-form exists when consciousness exists.

From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form." See also SN12.67)

    From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form.

    From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media.

    From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact.

    From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

    From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

    From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance.

    From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

    From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

    From birth as a requisite condition, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play.

    Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering.

    Now from the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications.

    From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness.

(SN12.65: Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form:

"Consciousness doesn't exist when name-&-form doesn't exist.

From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of consciousness.

Name-&-form doesn't exist when consciousness doesn't exist.

From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form." See also SN12.67)

    From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form.

    From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media.

    From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact.

    From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling.

    From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving.

    From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/ sustenance.

    From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming.

    From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth.

    From the cessation of birth, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease.

    Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering."

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Dependent origination of the self, and of the illusion of the self

v    SN12.46 - A Certain Brahmin : (i.e. The Middle Way about the subject: the one who creates karma and the one who experiences its consequences are not the same, not different non-dual: not one, not two no continuity (no existence), no discontinuity (no non-existence). And it is the same with everything that changes, from one moment to the next, with everything that is dependently arisen the world and mind.)

      "[To say,] 'The one who acts is the same one who experiences,' is one extreme.

      [To say,] 'The one who acts is someone other than the one who experiences,' is the second extreme.

      Avoiding both of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dharma by means of the middle:

    [the 12 links of dependent origination]"

v    MN109 - The Great Full-moon Night Discourse & MN44 - The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers : (i.e. The dependent origination of the illusions of a self that is the same or different than the five aggregates.)

      "Lord, how does self-identity view come about?" "There is the case, monk, where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person assumes

     form to be the [same as the] self,
(MN148: `This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.')

     or the self as possessing form,

     or form as in the self,

     or the self as in form.

      He assumes feeling to be the self, or the self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in the self, or the self as in feeling.

      He assumes perception to be the self, or the self as possessing perception, or perception as in the self, or the self as in perception.

      He assumes fabrications to be the self, or the self as possessing fabrications, or fabrications as in the self, or the self as in fabrications.

      He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness.

v    SN22.81 At Palieyyaka : (i.e. The dependent origination of the illusions of a self that is the same or different than the five aggregates.)

      "There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person assumes form to be the self. That assumption is a fabrication.

    Now what is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication?

    To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by that which is felt born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that.

    And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. That craving ... That feeling ... That contact ... That ignorance is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. It is by knowing & seeing in this way that one without delay puts an end to the effluents.

    Or he doesn't assume form to be the self, but he assumes the self as possessing form ... form as in the self ... self as in form

      or feeling to be the self ... the self as possessing feeling ... feeling as in the self ... self as in feeling

      or perception to be the self ... the self as possessing perception ... perception as in the self ... self as in perception

      or fabrications to be the self ... the self as possessing fabrications ... fabrications as in the self ... self as in fabrications

      or consciousness to be the self ... the self as possessing consciousness ... consciousness as in the self ... self as in consciousness.

      or 'This self is the same as the cosmos. This I will be after death, constant, lasting, eternal, not subject to change.' This eternalist view is a fabrication ....

      or 'I would not be, neither would there be what is mine. I will not be, neither will there be what is mine.' This annihilationist view is a fabrication ....

      or he may be doubtful & uncertain, having come to no conclusion with regard to the true Dharma. "

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Dependent origination of extreme views about production

v    SN12.25 - To Bhumija : "The Blessed One, my friend, has said that pleasure & pain are dependently co-arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact." (i.e. dependent origination of extreme views about production of feelings [pleasure & pain])

      Whatever priests & contemplatives, teachers of karma, who declare that pleasure & pain are self-made [otherwise than through contact], even that (i.e. this view of self-production) is dependent on contact.

      Whatever priests & contemplatives, teachers of karma, who declare that pleasure & pain are other-made [otherwise than through contact], even that (i.e. this view of other-production) is dependent on contact.

      Whatever priests & contemplatives, teachers of karma, who declare that pleasure & pain are self-made & other-made [otherwise than through contact], even that (i.e. this view of both self- and other-production) is dependent on contact.

      Whatever priests & contemplatives, teachers of karma, who declare that pleasure & pain are neither self-made nor other-made, but arise spontaneously [otherwise than through contact], even that (i.e. this view of neither self- and other-production, or of production without cause) is dependent on contact. "

v    SN12.67 Sheaves of Reeds : (i.e. dependent origination of extreme views about production of the 12 links; including the interdependent co-origination of consciousness and name-&-form [of the world and mind])

      "It's not the case that aging & death

    are self-made, (i.e. refuting self-production)

    that they are other-made, (i.e. refuting other-production)

    that they are both self-made & other-made, (i.e. refuting selfand-other-production)

    or that -- without self-making or other-making -- they arise spontaneously. (i.e. refuting production without a cause)

    However, from birth as a requisite condition comes aging & death.

      It's not the case that birth... from becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

      It's not the case that becoming... from clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

      It's not the case that clinging/sustenance... from craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance.

      It's not the case that craving... from feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

      It's not the case that feeling... from contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

      It's not the case that contact... from the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact.

      It's not the case that the six sense media from name & form as a requisite condition come the six sense media.

      It's not the case that name-&-form

    are self-made, (i.e. refuting self-production of the world)

    that they are other-made, (i.e. refuting other-production of the world)

    that they are both self-made & other-made, (i.e. refuting selfand-other-production of the world)

    or that -- without self-making or other-making -- they arise spontaneously. (i.e. refuting production without a cause of the world)

    However, from consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form. (i.e. Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form.)

      It's not the case that consciousness

    is self-made, (i.e. refuting self-production of the mind)

    that it is other-made, (i.e. refuting other-production of the mind)

    that it is both self-made & other-made, (i.e. refuting selfand-other-production of the mind)

    or that -- without self-making or other-making -- it arises spontaneously. (i.e. refuting production without a cause of the mind)

    However, from name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness." (i.e. Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form.)

v    SN22.81 At Palieyyaka : (i.e. dependent origination of extreme views about the self, or other extreme views.) "There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person

      assumes form to be the self. That assumption is a fabrication.

    Now what is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication?

    To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by that which is felt born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that.

    And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. That craving ... That feeling ... That contact ... That ignorance is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. It is by knowing & seeing in this way that one without delay puts an end to the effluents.

    Or he doesn't assume form to be the self, but he assumes the self as possessing form ... form as in the self ... self as in form

      ... or feeling to be the self ... the self as possessing feeling ... feeling as in the self ... self as in feeling

      ... or perception to be the self ... the self as possessing perception ... perception as in the self ... self as in perception

      ... or fabrications to be the self ... the self as possessing fabrications ... fabrications as in the self ... self as in fabrications

      ... or consciousness to be the self... the self as possessing consciousness... consciousness as in the self... self as in consciousness.

Or he may have a view such as this:

      'This self is the same as the cosmos. This I will be after death, constant, lasting, eternal, not subject to change.' This eternalist view is a fabrication ....

      Or ... he may have a view such as this: 'I would not be, neither would there be what is mine. I will not be, neither will there be what is mine.' This annihilationist view is a fabrication ....

      Or ... he may be doubtful & uncertain, having come to no conclusion with regard to the true Dharma. "

v    AN10.93 Views : "As for the venerable one who says, (i.e. dependent origination of the ten extreme views; and dependently arisen means impermanent, stressful, not-self, )

      'The cosmos is eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. This is the sort of view I have,'

    his view arises from his own inappropriate attention or in dependence on the words of another. Now this view has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated. Whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. This venerable one thus adheres to that very stress, submits himself to that very stress.'

      'The cosmos is eternal...'...

      'The cosmos is not eternal...'...

      'The cosmos is finite...'...

      'The cosmos is infinite...'...

      'The soul & the body are the same...'...

      'The soul is one thing and the body another...'...

      'After death a Tathagata exists...'...

      'After death a Tathagata does not exist...'...

      'After death a Tathagata both does & does not exist...'...

      'After death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist...'...

      'Venerable sirs, whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. Whatever is stress is not me, is not what I am, is not my self. Having seen this well with right discernment as it actually is present, I also discern the higher escape from it as it actually is present.' "

v    AN3.61 - Sectarians : (i.e. rejecting the extreme views about dependent origination / feelings caused by karma or not)

      "Monks, there are these three [extreme views about the origin of feelings]: `Whatever a person experiences -- pleasant, painful, or neither pleasant nor painful --

    'that is all caused by what was done in the past'

    'that is all caused by a supreme being's act of creation'

    'that is all without cause & without condition'

      Then I said to them ... When one falls back

    on what was done in the past as being essential,

    on creation by a supreme being as being essential

    on lack of cause and lack of condition as being essential

      monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], `This should be done. This shouldn't be done.' When one can't pin down as a truth or reality what should & shouldn't be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a contemplative. This was my first righteous refutation of those priests & contemplative who hold to such teachings, such views."

v    Prajnaparamita - The Bodhisattva's Reality-Based Skillfulness : (Emptiness of production): "All of these bodhisattvas gained the patience arising from realization of the non-production of dharmas."

.

Dependent origination of complications, views, obsessions, dispute

v    MN18 The Ball of Honey : (i.e. dependent origination of complications, obsessions, and suffering)

      "Dependent on eye & forms, eye-consciousness arises.

    The meeting of the three is contact.

    With contact as a requisite condition, there is feeling.

    What one feels, one perceives (labels in the mind).

    What one perceives, one thinks about.

    What one thinks about, one complicates.

    Based on what a person complicates, the perceptions & categories of complication assail him/her with regard to past, present, & future forms cognizable via the eye.

      Dependent on ear & sounds, ear-consciousness arises...

      Dependent on nose & aromas, nose-consciousness arises...

      Dependent on tongue & flavors, tongue-consciousness arises...

      Dependent on body & tactile sensations, body-consciousness arises...

      Dependent on intellect & ideas, intellect-consciousness arises...  one complicates "

v    SNP4.3 Corrupted : (i.e. All views are dependently arisen, thus corrupted, unreliable so we should adopt the Middle Way: not accepting as absolute or inherently existing, not rejecting as non-existent )

      "One whose doctrines aren't clean -- fabricated, formed, given preference when he sees it to his own reward -- relies on a peace dependent on what can be shaken. When one's convinced of what has been grasped among doctrines, entrenchments in views aren't easily overcome. That's why a person takes up or rejects a doctrine -- in light of these very entrenchments.

      Now, one who is cleansed has no view formed about states of becoming or non-becoming anywhere in the world. Having abandoned conceit & illusion, by what means would he go anywhere in the world? He isn't involved.

      For one who's involved gets into disputes over doctrines, but how -- through what means -- would you argue with one uninvolved? He has nothing taken up or rejected, has sloughed off every view right here -- every one."

v    SNP4.5 On views : (i.e. Transcending all discrimination, all dualities; adopting no absolute position, no extreme view. All methods & views are dependently arisen, thus corrupted, unreliable so we should not be dependent on them we should adopt the Middle Way: not accepting as absolute or inherently existing, not rejecting as non-existent )

      "A person who associates himself with certain views, considering them as best and making them supreme in the world, he says, because of that, that all other views are inferior; therefore he is not free from contention (with others). In what is seen, heard, cognized and in ritual observances performed, he sees a profit for himself. Just by laying hold of that view he regards every other view as worthless.

      Those skilled (in judgment) say that (a view becomes) a bond if, relying on it, one regards everything else as inferior.

      Therefore a bhikkhu should not depend on what is seen, heard or cognized, nor upon ritual observances. (i.e. No real objects of the senses, concepts, ideas, theories, views, methods.)

      He should not present himself as equal to, nor imagine himself to be inferior, nor better than, another. (i.e. No absolute characteristic or classification.)

      Abandoning (the views) he had (previously) held and not taking up (another), he does not seek a support even in knowledge. (i.e. It is not about replacing our view of the world.)

      Among those who dispute he is certainly not one to take sides. (i.e. No reason to get involved into dispute about extreme views or absolutes.)

      He does not [have] recourse to a view at all. (i.e. Never affirming any view as absolute; but it is ok to use some as adapted skillful means while knowing its real nature.)

      In whom there is no inclination to either extreme, for becoming or non-becoming, here or in another existence, for him there does not exist a fixed viewpoint on investigating the doctrines assumed (by others). (i.e. The Middle Way between accepting and rejecting, between becoming and non-becoming; between existence and non-existence about any dharma in the three realms of becoming.)

      Concerning the seen, the heard and the cognized he does not form the least notion. (i.e. Never believing in the inherent existence of any object of the senses or ideas, concepts, theories.)

    (i.e. MN1 : "Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as `mine,' does not delight in earth."

    UD1.10: "only the seen in reference to the seen, only the heard in reference to the heard, only the sensed in reference to the sensed, only the cognized in reference to the cognized")

      That brahmana [2] who does not grasp at a view, with what could he be identified in the world? (i.e. So nothing can define him; there is no lever to manipulate him.)

      They do not speculate nor pursue (any notion); doctrines are not accepted by them. (i.e. Not trying to find any ultimate truth.)

      A (true) brahmana is beyond, does not fall back on views." (i.e. He has seen through the real nature of all views and thus is free from them and their consequential suffering.)

v    MN72 - To Vacchagotta on Fire : (i.e. No absolute position or view; but still teaching what is skillful: origination & cessation, dependent origination)

      "'A "position," Vaccha, is something that a Tathagata has done away with. What a Tathagata sees is this:

    "Such is form, such its origin, such its disappearance;

    such is feeling, such its origin, such its disappearance;

    such is perception...

    such are mental fabrications...

    such is consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance."

      Because of this, I say, a Tathagata -- with the ending, fading out, cessation, renunciation, & relinquishment of all construings, all excogitations, all I-making & mine-making & tendencies to conceits -- is, through lack of sustenance/clinging, released.'"

v    On the Buddha has no view see also: MN72, MN95, SN22.86, AN4.24, AN4.183, AN10.93, AN10.94, AN10.96, SNP4.3, SNP4.5, SNP4.8.

##

Directly realizing dependent origination & necessary falling away, one becomes free

v    SN12.31 This has come into Being : (i.e. Realizing dependent origination one becomes free)

      "One sees with right discernment, lord, that `this has come into being.' Seeing with right discernment that `this has come into being,' one is -- through disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, through lack of clinging/sustenance -- released from what has come into being.

      One sees with right discernment that `it has come into being from this nutriment.' Seeing with right discernment that `it has come into being from this nutriment,' one is -- through disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, through lack of clinging/sustenance -- released from the nutriment by which it has come into being.

      One sees with right discernment that `from the cessation of this nutriment, what has come into being is subject to cessation.' Seeing with right discernment that `from the cessation of this nutriment, what has come into being is subject to cessation,' one is -- through disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, through lack of clinging/sustenance -- released from what is subject to cessation."

v    SN12.23 Prerequisites : (i.e. Liberation has its prerequisites)

      "Monks, the ending of the effluents (the destruction of the cankers) is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what is there the ending of effluents?

    'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such is perception, such its origination, such its disappearance.

    Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their disappearance.

    Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

    The ending of the effluents is for one who knows in this way & sees in this way.

      The knowledge of ending in the presence of ending (i.e. knowledge of destruction with respect to destruction) has its prerequisite, I tell you. It is not without a prerequisite.

    And what is the prerequisite for the knowledge of ending? Release, it should be said.

    Release (i.e. emancipation) has its prerequisite, I tell you. It is not without a prerequisite. And what is its prerequisite?

    Dispassion...

    Disenchantment...

    Knowledge & vision of things as they actually are present...

    Concentration...

    Pleasure/happiness...

    Serenity/tranquility...

    Rapture...

    Joy...

    Conviction/faith...

    Stress/suffering...

    Birth...

    Becoming/existence...

    Clinging...

    Craving...

    Feeling...

    Contact...

    The six sense media...

    Name-&-form/mentality-materiality...

    Consciousness...

    Fabrications/karma-formations...

    Fabrications have their prerequisite, I tell you. They are not without a prerequisite. And what is their prerequisite? Ignorance, it should be said."

    (i.e. See Upanissa Sutta Wheel Pub. # 277-278 for details on these)

v    SN12.68 At Kosambi : "Musila, my friend, putting aside conviction (i.e. blind faith), putting aside preference, putting aside tradition, putting aside reasoning through analogies, putting aside an agreement through pondering views: Do you have truly personal knowledge that, (i.e. the necessity to have personal direct knowledge of dependent origination to become free; mere conceptual understanding is helpful but not enough)

      'From birth as a requisite condition come aging & death'?

      'From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth'...

      'From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming'...

      'From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance'...

      'From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving'...

      'From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling'...

      'From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact'...

      'From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media'...

      'From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form'...

(SN12.65: Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form:

"Name-&-form exists when consciousness exists.

From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form.

Consciousness exists when name-&-form exists.

From name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness

This consciousness turns back at name-&-form, and goes no farther." See also SN12.67)

      'From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness.'

      'From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications'?

      ---------

      'From the cessation of birth comes the cessation of aging & death'?

      'From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth'...

      'From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming'...

      'From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance'...

      'From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving'...

      'From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling'...

      'From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact'...

      'From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media'...

      'From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form'...

(SN12.65: Interdependence of consciousness and name-&-form:

"Name-&-form doesn't exist when consciousness doesn't exist.

From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form.

Consciousness doesn't exist when name-&-form doesn't exist.

From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of consciousness." See also SN12.67)

      'From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness.'

      'From the cessation of ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications'

      ---------

      'The cessation of becoming (sensual becoming, form becoming, & formless becoming) is Unbinding'?" (i.e. Nirvana is presented as the prevention of being in any of the three realms of existence: body, speech and mind or desire/sense realm, form realm, and formless realm. In fact it is the Middle way between existence and non-existence. And the purification of our body speech and mind (the five aggregates) is accomplished by directly realizing the real nature of those three realms, their inseparability, their non-duality. That is how we transmute our impure body speech & mind into the pure body speech and mind of a Buddha (the trikaya). By directly realizing the interdependence and inseparability of the world and mind. -- "The three realms of desire, form, and the formless, are the cities of appearance, half-appearance, and non-appearance. This is because they have coarse appearance, subtle appearance, and none at all.")

(i.e. From the cessation of karma production, from seeing through karma production and conditioning, from realizing its real nature: dependent co-origination and necessary falling away / non-independence / emptiness of inherent existence. That is directly realizing the real nature of the three realms: sense, form and formless realms or the inseparability of the body speech and mind.)

##

Dependent origination after 'Release'

v    MN121 The Lesser Discourse on Emptiness : (i.e. We cannot deny dependent origination even after 'Release')

      "Further, Ananda, the monk -- not attending to the perception of the sphere of nothingness, not attending to the perception of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception -- attends to the singleness based on the theme-less concentration of awareness. His mind takes pleasure, finds satisfaction, settles, & indulges in its theme-less concentration of awareness.

      He discerns that 'This theme-less concentration of awareness (i.e. cessation of perception and feeling) is fabricated & mentally fashioned.'

      And he discerns that 'Whatever is fabricated & mentally fashioned is inconstant & subject to cessation.'

      For him -- thus knowing, thus seeing -- the mind is released from the effluent of sensuality, the effluent of becoming, the effluent of ignorance (the three poisons). With release, there is the knowledge, 'Released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

      He discerns that 'Whatever disturbances would exist based on the effluent of sensuality... the effluent of becoming... the effluent of ignorance (the three poisons), are not present.

      And there is only this modicum of disturbance: that connected with the [actual] six sensory spheres, dependent on this very body with life as its condition.'

      He discerns that 'This mode of perception is empty of the effluent of sensuality... becoming... ignorance. And there is just this non-emptiness: that connected with the six sensory spheres, dependent on this very body with life as its condition.' Thus he regards it as empty of whatever is not there. Whatever remains, he discerns as present: 'There is this.' And so this, his entry into emptiness, accords with actuality, is undistorted in meaning, pure -- superior & unsurpassed.

v    AN9.45 - (Released) Both Ways : "Furthermore, with the complete transcending of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, he enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And as he sees with discernment, the mental fermentations go to their total end. He remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there, and he knows it through discernment. It is to this extent that one is described in a non-sequential way by the Blessed One as released both ways."

v    AN10.94 - About Vajjiya : "I tell you, venerable sirs, that the Blessed One righteously declares that 'This is skillful.' He declares that 'This is unskillful.' Declaring that 'This is skillful' and 'This is unskillful,' he is one who has declared [a teaching]. He is not a nihilist, one who doesn't declare anything."

No-self (dependent origination and emptiness of the self)

Seeking for the self -- all dependently arisen phenomena are not-self

v    AN4.49 - Perversions : "Monks, there are these four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view. Which four?

      'Constant' with regard to the inconstant is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view.

      'Pleasant' with regard to the stressful is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view.

      'Self' with regard to not-self is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. (i.e. Not only are they not the same as the self, but they are not separate/different than the self.)

      'Attractive' with regard to the unattractive is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view."

v    AN3.134 - The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dharma : "Monks, whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: All processes are inconstant. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are inconstant. Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: All processes are stressful. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are stressful. Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dharma, this orderliness of the Dharma: <