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This text is illustrated with an adaption of a traditional Buddhist diagram-an explanatory model of stages in the development of skill in concentration (shamata or shine). This basic medition technique is common to a number of meditative traditions and an essential tool in all advanced Buddhist metitation practices. The diagram clearly indicates that the practice of concentration involves development of refinement of innate functions of the mind.
Shine - First Stage The first panel depicts several mental functions during the first phase of concentration practice, when the meditator repeatedly attempts to focus attention one-pointedly on a single object, either external or internal. The meditator starts out on the path of well learned instructions equipped with shackles and goad which represent short term memory and the monitoring function, to catch and subdue the wild elephant of mind. The elephant's black color represents undergrousal of mind, which hinders clear perception of the object and eventually leads to drowsiness. The monkey represents distraction, and its black color is caused by overarousal of mind. After each failure to maintain one-pointed attention on the object the meditator must determine wether it was due to over- or under- arousal and take corrective measures for the next trial. The fire, decreasing in size from the first to the seventh stages, and absent thereafter, indicates the degree of effort required at each stage until concentration becomes 'spontaneous'.
Shine - Second Stage The second stage is achieved mainly through development of short-term working memory and involves lengthening the period of unbroken concentration.
From the second stage on, the blackness of monkey and elephant begins to diminish, indicating the decreasing tendency toward over- and under-arousal and resulting in less distractibility and a clearer grasp of the object.
Shine - Third Stage By the third stage the meditator has fastenend the shackle (short-term- memory) firmly to the elephant of mind but is still pulled along behind. Lacking full control, the meditator must continue to refocus attention after each lapse. However, the period of unbroken concentration is longer and less effort is expending. A hare appears for the first time, symbolizing a subtle aspect of the hindrance of over-arousal due to the effort required to establish concentration.
Shine - Fourth Stage At the fourth stage, development of the monitoring function (a goad-a sence for the level of activity of the nervous system) and the extension of the period of short-term memory permit finer control during concentration. The factors of over- and under-arousal are greatly reduced both during and in-between the actual state of absorption, as is the effort required to establish the absorption state. At this stage normally positive mental functions will distract the mind from the object and must be suppressed during concentration practice. It is no longer necessary to reset the mind again, since the developed short-term memory and the monitoring function acting together permit correction of over- and under-arousal before losing the object.
Shine - Fifth Stage By the fifth stage the mind tends to be drawn automatically toward the object, and thus the monitoring function itself, which tends to increase arousal and lead to distraction, must be released. The fire of effort is small and the hare is absent, the mind is said to be pacified.
Shine - Sixth Stage At the sixth stage, the monkey of distraction has faded out, and the blackness of mental sluggishness has almost disappeared from the elephant of mind. Only the slightest over- or under-arousal disturbs the absorption state and this is easily corrected with slight effort before concentration falls.
Shine - Seventh Stage At the seventh stage the monkey is completly gone, the elephant is completely white and is untouched by distraction or sluggishness. Gone also are shackle and goad, because short-term memory and the monitoring function are needed only to establish the actual absorption state, which is now 'effortless'. Finally the meditator seated and at rest, has achieved perfect mental euqanimity. This is attended by mental and physical ecstasy, the latter felt as a pleasurable lightness symbolized by flying. The resulting perfect control on mental functioning (riding on the elephant) serves as a basis for advanced practices such as 'analytic Insight' (Vipassana). This again requires effort (fire) and analytic thought (sword in the hand of Manjushri, with whom you can identify now) firmly combined with perfect concentration. Substantial development of concentration skill can be achieved in as little as six months with proper condition, instructions and guidance. However, developed concentration alone tends to degenerate unless it is applied to advanced analytic techniques as mentioned above.

Other Pages on Tibetan Buddhism on this site
Kalu Rinpoche: Mahamudra
Lama Yeshe: Buddhist Way of Thought
Lama Yeshe, A Milestone In My Life
Biographical Notes on Ven. Kalu Rinpoche
Kalu Rinpoche: The 6 Bardos and the Nature of Mind
Kalu Rinpoche (Biographical Notes)
Tenga Tulku (Biographical Notes)
Geshe Rabten: Remarks on Buddhist Philosophy
Gangchen Tulku, The Healing Lama
Tibetan Art (Thangka Gallery #1)
Taeger's Buddhist Teachers
Mentor (White Manjushri Thangka)
Book Recommendations (Tibetan Buddhism)
Alex Grey: Nature of Mind
Some Minor Subpages
Geshe Rabten (short bio),
Kalu Rinpoche, Kalu Rinpoche (Photo),
Zong Rinpoche, Gangchen Tulku & Panchen Ítrul R.,
Gangchen Tulku (Photo Impressions),
Tenga Tulku, Lama Yeshe & Lama Zopa (Photo),
Vajrapani Painting,
Green Tara Painting (by Andy Weber),
8-Armed Green Tara Painting,
Golden Nagaradja, Golden Nagaradja (detail), Nagas,
Heruka-Chakrasamvara, Psychedelic Buddha,
Shakyamuni Buddha, Initiation Photo (H. Taeger),
Retreat Confirmation (H. Taeger),
Skyblue Manjushri,
Hans Taeger: Thoughts & Quotes
For a more detailed listing & new added pages click:
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updated August 99/Sept. 2000

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