- The term dharma is one of the most intractable terms in Hindu
theology. Derived from the root dhar (Dhri) to uphold, sustain or
support, the term Dharma denotes that which holds together the different
aspects and qualities of an object into a whole. Ordinarily, the term
Dharma has been translated as a religious code, as righteousness, as a
system of morality, as duty, as charity etc., but the original sanskrit
term has an individual personality of its own, which is not captured by
any one of these renderings. The best rendering of this term dharma that
I have met with so far, is "the Law of being", meaning "that which makes
a thing or being what it is." For example, it is the Dharma of the fire
to burn, of the sun to shine, etc.
#Dharanat Dharmam Ithyahu Dharmena Vidratah Prajah#
Dharma means, therefore, not merely righteousness or goodness but it
indicates the essential nature of anything without which it cannot
retain its independent existence. For example, a cold dark sun is
impossible, as heat and light are the dharmas of the sun. Similarly, if
we are to live as truly dynamic men in the world, we can only do so by
being faithful to our true nature,and the Geetaa explains `to me my
The essential factor in man is the Divine Consciousness. All actions,
thoughts and ideas entertained by him which are not opposed to his
essential Divine Nature constitute his Dharma. All actions and thoughts
that hasten the evolution of man to rediscover his essential Divine
Nature are considered righteous action (Dharma), while all activities of
the mind and intellect that take him away from his true Divine Nature
and make him behave like an animal and degrade him in this evolutionary
status, are called unrighteous behaviour (A-dharma).
- In the early Upanishads the supreme achievement has been indicated
by the term Immortality, meaning, `deathlessness' (amritattvam),
although it may be interesting to note that in the later Upanishads the
same has come to be indicated by the term `birthlessness'.
When the Transcendental Truth or the Eternal Perfection has been
indicated by the term Immortality, it is not used in its limited sense
of `deathlessness' of the body. Here the term `death' not only indicated
the destruction of the physical embodiment but also includes and
incorporates within its embrace of significance the entire range of
finite experience, where, in each one of them, there is an
extinction-experience. No experience gained through either the body, or
the mind, or the intellect is permanent. In other words, each experience
is born to live with us for a short period and then to die away in us.
These chain of finite experience stretch out in front of us as the
paths of sorrow and pain in our life. The term Immortality, used by the
Rishis to indicate the supermanhood' envisages how the individual ego
walking the thorny path of finite sorrows gets itself transcended to the
Infinite experience of the eternal and the permanent.
- Qualifying the eternal as unknowable is not in any sense to indicate
that the Supreme is `unknown'. The term 'unknowable' is only meant to
express here that it is not knowable through the usual organs of
perception. The senseorgans are the instruments through which
Consciousness beams out and, in Its awareness, objects get illumined.
These instruments of cognition, whether they be sense-organs, or the
mind, or the intellect, in themselves are inert and can have their
knowledge of perception only when they are dynamised by the conscious
spark of life. As such, these organs cannot make the very Consciousness
an object of their apprehension. Therefore in terms of our most common
source of knowledge-direct perception- the Sastra says here that the
Supreme is `unknowable', It being self-determined (swatahsiddha).
- Pairs-of-opposites are the experiences in our life of joy and
sorrow, health and disease, success and failure, heat and cold, etc.
Each one of them can be experienced and unknown only with reference to,
and as a contrast with, its opposite. Therefore, the term
pairs-of-opposites(dwandwas) envisages in its all- comprehensive meaning
all the experience of man in life.
- The term Yoga has been used in the context of the evenness of mind
through work, and in the very same stanza, before it concludes, we get
an exhaustive definition too of the term Yoga as used here. `Evenness of
mind', tranquillity for mental composure in all pairs-of- opposites, is
defined here as Yoga. Defined thus, the term Yoga, as used here,
indicates a special condition of the mind in which it comes to a neutral
equilibrium in all the ebb and flow of life's tides. The instructions in
the stanza advise us that desireless action can be performed only when
one gets completely established in Yoga, where the term means, precisely
what Vyasa defines it to mean here.
- Here the term used, `Buddhi Yoga' has tickled some commentators to
discover in it a specific Yoga advised by the Geeta. I personally think
that it is too much of a laboured theory. Buddhi, as defined in the
Upanishad, is a determining factor in the inner equipment. Nischayatmika
is intellect; samsayatmika is mind. Thus, when thoughts are in a state
of flux and agitated, it is called the mind, and when it is single
pointed, calm and serene in its own determination, it is the intellect.
Thus Buddhi Yoga becomes `established in the devotion to intellect.'
Steady in your conviction, your mind perfectly under the control of your
better discriminative intellect, to live as a master of your inner and
outer work is called Buddi Yoga.
- One who is established in evenness of temper-through his perfect
withdrawal from the realm of sentiments and emotions and who is
established in his resolute intellect, gets himself transported from the
arena of both good and bad, merit and demerit. The conception of good
and bad is essentially of the mind, and the reactions of merit and
demerit are left on the mental composition in the form of vasanas or
samskaras. One who is not identifying with the stormy area of the mind
is not thrown up or sunk down in the ruts of vasanas. This idea is
explained here by the term Buddhi yuktah.
- We have to interpret the term Deva as the very presiding deity in
any field of activity.who blesses the worker in that field with his
profit. The Deity that blesses the worker in a field of activity can be
nothing other than "the productive potential" in that given field. When
we apply in any situation our true and sincere work the effort and
sacrifice so made, as it were, invoke the 'productive potential' in that
situation, and it comes to manifest and bless the worker. This becomes
obviously clear when we try to understand what we mean in the modern
world when we say Mother India or the Britannica. In thus symbolising
the might of a nation we mean in our discussions the "productive
potential" of that country in all its spheres of activities.
It is obvious that the productivity that is dormant in any situation
can be invoked only by man's sincere efforts. This potential which
generally lies dormant everywhere is the Deva to be cherished by the
worker through the Yajna activities and, certainly, it is sure that the
Deva will manifest in turn to cherish or to bless the
- Swadharma is not the caste duties which accrue to an individual due
to the sheer accident of birth. In its right import here, it should be
only the type of Vasanas that one discovers in oneself in one's own
mind. To act according to one's own taste, inborn and natural, is the
only known method of living in peace and joy, in success and
satisfaction. To act against the grain of one's own Vasanas would be
acting in terms of Para-dharma; and how much this is fraught with fear
is very well known.
||swadharma & para-dharma||
- The word Veda is derived from the root vid to know; Veda, therefore,
means `Knowledge'. The `Knowledge' of the divinity lurking in man and
the technique by which it can be brought out to full manifestation are
the theme of the veda text books, and the truth of this theme is
Just as we can say that electricity is eternal inasmuch as there was
electricity even before a scientist discovered it, and inasmuch as
electrical energy will not be exhausted because of our forgetfulness of
its existence, so too the divine nature of man is not destroyed because
of our nonacceptance of it.
- With Geeta the Vedic Yagna has become a self-dedicated activity
performed in a spirit of service to many. All actions, performed without
an ego and not motivated by one's ego-centric desires, are to fall under
the category of Yagna.
- A true prophet--not an assumed one laboriously keeping to himself
the unnatural pose of an unrealised perfection--is one who lives himself
consumed in an ever-reviving fire of love. He ceaselessly strives to
bring out 'himself' from the rubbish that is veiling his own Self in all
other forms around and about. This is indicated by the term 'ENGAGED IN
THE GOOD OF ALL BEINGS'. LOKA-SEVA becomes his recreation,his
self-appointed engagement. His body, mind, and intellect are offered as
oblations into the sacred fires of activity an, while remaining at rest
within himself, the saint lives on in the unbroken consciousness of the
Divine, the Eternal.
- 'TAPAS' means all self-denial and practices of self-control which
the ego undertakes in order to integrate and revive its own capacities
to seek its real identity with the Eternal.
- Man cannot remain ordinarily without imagining constantly in his
exuberant fancy. And, in his imagination, he invariably tries to pull
down the beautiful veil thrown over the face of the future. Ripping open
this veil over the Unknown, everyone of us, on all occasions in our
imaginations, fix for ourselves a goal to be fulfilled by us in the near
future. Having fixed up the temporary goal, our mind plans and creates a
method of achieving that hazy goal. But ere we execute our plans and
enter into the field of effort to carve out success for ourselves, the
never-tiring and everactive power of imagination in us would have
already wiped clean the earlier-fixed goal for achievement and rewritten
a modified destination to be gained in the future.
Again, by the time we prepare ourselves mentally and start executing
our ideas in our life, our mischievous fancy would have already wiped
clean the distant goal. Thus, each time the goal remains only so long as
we have not started our pilgrimage to it; and the moment we start the
pilgrimage, the goal fades away from our vision!
In short, when we have got a goal, we have not started acting, and
the moment we start the strife, we seem to have no goal to reach. The
subtle force in our inner composition, which unconsciously creates this
lunatic temperament in us, is called the unbridled SANKALPA
- He who has gained a complete mastery over his mind is one who has
not only withdrawn himself from all sense-contacts and activities in the
outer world, but has also dried up all the SANKALPA disturbances, in his
own mind. Such an individual is, at the moment of meditation, in that
inwardstate which is described here as YOGARUDHA.
The knowledge gained through study is indicated here by the term
GYANA, and the first-hand experience gained by the seeker of the Self in
himself is called the knowledge of direct perception, which is termed
here, in the Geeta vocabulary, as VIGYANA.
- KOOTASTHA(Unchanging, Immutable): This is the term used for the
Eternal Self. Its expressiveness becomes apparent when we understand
that the term 'KOOTA' means in Sanskrit the 'anvil'. The anvil is that
upon which the blacksmith places his red-hot iron bits and hammers them
into the required shapes. In spite of the hammerings, nothing happens to
the anvil, as the anvil resists all modifications and changes, but
allows all other things to get changed while in contact with it. Thus,
the term 'KOOTASTHA' means that which 'remains anvil-like', and though
itself suffers no change, it makes others change.
- BRAHMACHARYA is not only the control of the sex-impulses but is also
the practice of self-control in all avenues of sense-impulses and
sense-satisfactions. BRAHMACHARYA as such is a term that can be
dissolved to mean 'wandering in BRAHMAVICHAR'. To engage our mind in the
contemplation of the Self, the Supreme Reality, is the saving factor
that can really help us in withdrawing the mind from external
objects.The human mind must have one field or another to engage itself
in. Unless it is given some inner field to meditate upon, it will not be
in a position to retire from its extrovert pre-occupations. This is the
secret behind all success in 'total-celibacy'. The successful Yogin need
not be gazed at as a rare phenomenon in nature, for his success can be
the success of all, only if they know how to establish themselves in
this inward self-control. It is because people are ignorant of the
positive methods to be practised for a continuous and successful
negation and complete rejection of the charms of sense-organs, that they
invariably fail in their endeavour.
BRAHMACHARYA, in its aspect of sense-withdrawal, lends a larger share
of physical quietitude. Therefore, when by the above process the
intellect, mind, and body are all controlled and brought to the maximum
amount of peace and quietitude, the 'way of life' pursued by the seeker
provides for him a large saving in the mental energy which would have
been otherwise spent away in sheer dissipation.
This newly discovered and fully availed strength makes the mind
stronger and stronger, so that the seeker experiences in himself a
growing capacity to withdraw his wandering mind into himself and to fix
his entire thoughts 'in the contemplation of Me, the Self'.
- 'Krishna', a word that comes from the root KRISH, meaning, 'to
scrape'. The term Krishna is applicable to the Self because, on
realisation of the True, the delusory threats of the mind and the
consequent dreamy VASANAS will all be scraped from our cognition.
- The term SRADDHA is not some maddening superstition which encourages
a blind faith. The inspired devotion that springs up in a bosom, from
among its solid intellectual convictions gained through a true
appreciation, is the mighty power called faith 'that can move mountains'
and 'bring the very heavens to the earth'.
It is not built upon the misty vapours of emotionalism, but upon the
solid beams of intellectual understanding and perfect awareness of the
logic of thought behind the theory. Sankara defines Sraddha as the
"moulding of the life and living, on the basis of right intellectual
comprehension of what the scripture indicates and the teachers explain".
It is the enduring faith that lifts us to realms beyond the reach of the
mind and intellect, and helps to carve out of the mortal and the finite,
the Immortal and the Infinite.
- In the Vedantic textbooks, BHAJAN is the attempt of the ego to pour
out itself in an act of devoted dedication towards the Principle of
Reality whereby it successfully invokes the experience that lies beyond
the noisy shores of the mindintellect. One who does this invocation
(BHAJAN) of the Self, and naturally gets himself merged in that
awakening, is declared by the teacher in the Geeta as belonging to the
highest type of meditation.
- In philosophy, the term Jagat means not only the world of objects
perceived by us through our sense-organs, but it includes in its
concept, the world experienced through and interpreted by the mind and
intellect also. Thus the worldof-objects, the world-of-feelings, and the
world-of-ideas that we experience, together, in their totality,
constitute the Jagat.
Jagat means "all the fields of experiences which man has, as a
physical body, as a psychological being and as an intellectual entity".
This would mean that the Jagat is the sum-total of the world perceived
by my senses, plus the world of my emotions and sentiments, plus the
world of my ideas and ideologies. The entire field ( Jagati-iti-Jagat:
that which is ever changing is Jagat. So it embraces the entire Universe
of things and beings conditioned by time and space.) that is
comprehended by the sense organs, the mind and the intellect, is to be
understood in its totality as Jagat. In short, this term conveniently
embraces, in its meaning and import, the entire "realm of
- The term Maya, as used in Vedantic literature, is nothing other than
the different impulses under which the mind and intellect of the living
- The term Brahman indicates the one changeless and imperishable
subjective Essence behind the phenomenal world. It becomes the Self, the
Conscious Principle which illumines the body, mind and intellect, during
all their pilgrimages from birth to death through the infinite varieties
of their vicissitudes.
- "Bhakti" is not to be understood in its cheap connotation, which it
has come to gather in its direct translation as `devotion'. Self-less
love, seeking a fulfilment in itself, when directed towards the divine
with firm faith and an allout belief, is called Bhakti. Love itself
means identifying with the object of love in such a way that the joys
and sorrows of the beloved become equally poignant joys and sorrows of
the lover. In short, the lovers become one with their beloveds, both in
their physical and emotional lives. Therefore, Sankara describes Bhakti
as "the identification of the ego with its Real Nature".
- Prana is the term used in the Science of Vedanta to indicate "all
the different expressions of life's vitality, through the various
instruments and organs of the body'. Life expressing itself as the
various functions in a living physical body is called the Prana.
- The act of `creation' is only the production of a name and form,
with some specific qualities, out of a raw-material in which the same
name, form, and qualities are already existing in an unmanifest
"CREATION IS BUT A CRYSTALLISATION OF THE UNMANIFEST DORMANT NAMES,
FORMS, AND QUALITIES, INTO THEIR MANIFEST FORMS OF
- The world of names and forms is finite and ever changing. At every
moment, every object is living through a process of change, and each
change is death to the previous state of existence of the object. Thus,
the term "death" used by Krishna in his phrase "FRAUGHT WITH DEATH" is
to be understood in this liberal meaning of the term. In short, courters
of the finite, reach the tragic realms of constant death.
- The term 'Upasana' means "worship". Through worship we invoke the
deity, meaning "the profit potential in any given field" (The Yajna
spirit in which the actions are to be undertaken, as explained in
Chapter IV) and the prefix Pari to this familiar term 'Upasana',
indicates a total-effort in which no stone is left unturned for carving
out one's victories in one's field of endeavour.
- The terms 'Yoga' and 'Kshema' defined as "the power to gain (Yoga),
and the power to guard (Kshema)" respectively, by Sankara in his
commentary,("Yogah apraaptasya-praapanam, Kshemah tad-rakshanam".
Sankara-"Yoga" means procuring what is not procured, and "Kshema" means
protecting what is already procured)
- Accepting the term 'Pitri' as denoting the 'ancestors', 'votaries of
ancestors' would mean 'persons who are enthusiastically alive to the
cultural purity and tradition of their ancients, and who are striving to
live up to those ideals'.
- The mind becomes more and more PURIFIED-the term being used in its
scriptural sense.(Less vasanas, less agitations, and a mind with least
thought-agitations in it is called a purified mind-it has more
single-pointed steadiness in meditation.) A purified mind has more
concentration and single-pointedness.
- Mental attitudes of "slumber and slothfulness" are indicated by the
term "Sudra" . When we have understood that these terms, familiar in
that age, are borrowed by Krishna to indicate special types of
mind-intellect-equipments, we have understood rightly.
- The Self being the same everywhere, the Atman that rules my world is
the Atman that rules the worlds of all individuals. The entire universe
is the sum total of the worlds of experience of each individual, and
evidently, the 'ruler' that governs the entire Universe must necessarily
be the Absolute Self Itself. The term 'the Lord of the worlds' is to be
rightly understood thus. The Lord is not a "tyrant over life" or "a
Sultan of the skies", or an "Autocrat who rules over our world". The
Self is the Lord of our experiences, just as the Sun, in the same
fashion, is the Lord of our daytime world.
Lord may be understood as the "Law" behind the world-ofplurality and
all the happenings therein.
- "He, who in reality knows these two, My Vibhuti and My Yoga", gets
established in the realisation of the Supreme. We find that the terms
Vibhuti and Yoga, which appear in this stanza, are invariably translated
as "Manifold manifestations of beings" (Vibhuti) and "My power" (Yoga).
In effect, although these translations are true, they are not
efficient enough to convey the subtle and the brilliant connection
between the statement and what has been indicated in the previous
stanza. Macrocosmic projection of a created Universe, through the
intervention of the "Seven Seers", is the Absolute's own Vibhuti, while
the microcosmic experience of a limited world, through the intervention
of the mindborn "Four Ancient Kumaras", is the Divine Yoga of the Self
in each one of us.
- Once the intellect is soaked with a convincing realisation that the
Essence behind the God-principle (Iswara) and the individual ego (Jiva)
is one and the same, whatever feelings may arise in the mind or whatever
thoughts may arise in the intellect, it is not very difficult for the
Truth-seeker to remain constantly aware of the Conscious Principle
behind them all and this constant "awareness of the Self" is indicated
here by the term 'Matchittah'.
- In the Sankhyan philosophy, the Spark-of-life in each individual is
called the Purusha, in Whose presence, the matter- envelopments
constituting Prakriti, become vitalised.
- Here Krishna is addressed as 'Purushottama' meaning "the Self of all
selves, the One-without-a-second". In the Geeta, the term Purushottam is
sometimes used as the 'most glorious of men' and sometimes in the purely
technical usage as the "Supreme Self".
- Siddha in Sanskrit indicates one who has "achieved the Goal
(Sadhya)" and therefore, it means the "Perfected One".
- The term Muni need not bring into our mind the traditional picture
supplied by illiterate painters of an aged, silverhaired, almost naked
fakir, generally roaming about where others will not dare to enter,
eating a strange diet, a strange creature of the forests, rather than a
decent normal man of the town. Muni is a term in Sanskrit derived from
the word Manana which is the "art of reflection". (Mananaseelavan-munih.
A Muni is one capable of penetrating reflections upon the deep
significance in the scriptural declarations.) The term Muni, therefore,
only means a thinker.
- The restful state of the TOTAL-mind-intellect, and therefore, of all
the vasanas in all of us in their condition of rest, would be the
TOTAL-pralaya and, at that time the whole Universe merges back to become
the "seed". This is an illuminating example of the poetic way of
expression used by all our ancient seers. This pregnant condition of the
potential energy, which, after a time and under suitable circumstances,
will emerge to express itself, is termed by the brilliant seers of
Upanishads as the Stateof-Hiranyagarbha. To translate this marvellous
term as the "Golden Egg" is one of the blasphemies unconsciously
committed by the Western translators who have thereby outraged the
beauty of our scriptures. "The womb of all things and beings", is all
that is indicated by the term, Hiranyagarbha.
- There are very many critics who try to explain this "Divineeye"
through fantastic suppositions and ridiculous theories. Such
commentators are certainly men not much educated in the style of the
Hindu scriptures, the UPANISHADS. Expressly and tacitly, all through the
Upanishads, it is repeatedly explained that the subtler cannot be
brought within the scope and compass of the instruments-of-perception
given to man. The external sense organs can play freely only in the
outer world-of- objects,. Even when we ordinarily " see an idea " it is
not done with our outer pair of eyes. The intellectual comprehension is
meant here by the term " seeing" and the capacity of the intellect to
comprehend is the `Divine-eye'.
- This does not mean running away from the objects-of-the world.
Living in the midst of these objects, to switch off our mental
pre-occupations with them; living amidst the objects detachedly and not
getting shackled by them--this is meant here by the term Vairagya.
- The term guna, used in the dialectics of the Geeta, indicates not
the 'properties' of a material but the 'attitude' with which the mind
functions. The psychological being in everyone of us comes under the
influence of three different "climatic conditions" prevalent in our
bosom. These three are called the gunas: Unactivity (Sattwa), Activity
(Rajas) and Inactivity (Tamas). The term guna also means 'rope', by
which, the spiritual beauty of life in us is tied down to the inert and
- HEART, in philosophy, means, "mind which has been trained to
entertain constantly the positive qualities of love tolerance, mercy,
charity, kindness and the like". The Infinite 'DWELLS IN THE HEART'
means, though He is present everywhere, the Lord is most conspicuously
self-evident, during meditation, in the HEART of the meditator.
- 'Sin' means an act, a feeling, or a thought, which, having been
perpetrated, entertained, or thought of, comes back after a time to
agitate our bosom with its insulting taunts and helpless regrets. In
short, SIN is the resultant of the past that comes to demean our
self-estimate and creates in us a lot of mental storm and consequent
dissipation. One who has thus an inner personality which carries
disturbing memories of undignified acts and cruel schemes, has indeed, a
bosom that is ever agitated and restless. Such a mindintellect-equipment
cannot consistently apply itself to any serious and deep investigation
into the subtle realm of the Pure Awareness that lies beyond the
frontiers of the intellect. Therefore, the term 'sinless' in the context
here only means "O STEADY-MINDED, ALERT AND VIGILANT STUDENT".
- The term here should mean more than "ABSENCE OF HATRED". Just as an
individual will never have, even in his dream, any idea of injuring
himself, a true seeker, in his recognition of the Oneness in all living
creatures, must come to feel that to injure anyone is to injure himself.
- The term Sastra need not necessarily be understood as a bundle of
ritualistic injunctions, strictly followed and sacredly insisted upon by
the fanatic orthodox. The textbooks discussing the Theory-of-Truth
(Brahma-Vidya) and the technique of self-perfection (Yoga) are called
Sastras, while other subsidiary books which explain and throw light upon
the Sastras are called Prakarana texts; the latter explain the
categories in the Science of Vedanta. Since the Geeta is a philosophical
poem, exhaustively explaining the theory and practice of
God-realisation, IT IS CONSIDERED AS A Sastra.
- The term Yajna has been earlier defined to include all selfless
co-operative endeavours of every individual in a society, undertaken to
bring forth to manifestation of the latent wealth and prosperity that
are in that community. Therefore, all acts done by an individual during
his life in a spirit of selfless dedication to the general well-being
can come under this term.
- The term `attachment' in the Geeta has a peculiar flavour and,
throughout its length, this term has been used to indicate the spirit in
which an ego-centric personality will come to work in any field of
activity while fulfilling his own egocentric desires. Thus, ego and its
desires are the component parts of attachments. When an ego strives to
fulfil its own burning desires, it comes to live in a certain
relationship with the world of things and objects around. This wrong
relationship is called `attachment'.
Dhriti (firm resolution)
- The term dhrti means `fortitude'--the subtle faculty in man that
makes him strive continuously towards a determined goal. When obstacles
come on his way, it is his faculty of dhrti that discovers for him more
and more courage and enthusiasm to face them all and to continue
striving towards the same determined goal. This persevering tendency to
push oneself on to the work until one reaches the halls of success,
unmindful of the obstacles that one might meet with on the path, is
||dhriti (firm resolution)||
- Utsaha means untiring self-application with a dynamic enthusiasm on
the path of achievement while pursuing success.
- Dhrti is that power within ourselves by which we consistently see
thepicture of a goal that we want to achieve; and while striving towards
it, dhrti discovers for us the necessary consistency of purpose to
pursue the path, in spite of all the mounting obstacles that rise on the
way. Dhrti paints the idea, maintains it constantly in our vision, makes
us steadily strive towards it, and when obstacles come, dhrti mobilises
secret powers within ourselves to face them all courageously,
heroically, and steadily.
- The term prasada is very often misunderstood in our ritualistic
language. The peace and tranquillity, the joy and expansion that the
mind and intellect come to experience as a result of their discipline
and contemplation are the true prasada. The joy arising out of spiritual
practices provided by the integration of the inner nature is called
- This (guhyam) is a term that went into much misuse and abuse in
India in our recent past. The term was misconstrued to mean that the
spiritual knowledge, which is the core of our culture, is a great secret
to be carefully preserved and jealously guarded against anybody else
coming to learn it. This view of the orthodox has no sanction in the
scriptures if we read them with the same large-heartedness of the rishis
who gave them to us. No doubt, there are persons who have neither the
intellectual vision nor the mental steadiness, nor the physical
discipline to understand correctly this great Truth in all its subtle
implications and, therefore, this is kept away from them lest they
should come to harm themselves by falsely living a misunderstood
- In a Yagna, Lord Fire is invoked in the sacrificial altar, and into
it are offered oblations by the devotees. From this analogy the term
gyana yagna has been originally coined and used in the Geeta. Study of
the scriptures and regular contemplation upon their deep significance
kindle the `fire of knowledge' in us, and into this the intelligent
seeker offers as his oblation his own false values and negative
tendencies. This is the significance of the metaphorical phrase gyana